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Eastham-Chapter6

Muscles

QuestionAnswer
Ability to shorten with force Contractility
Capacity to respond to a stimulus Excitability
Ability to be stretched Extensibility
Ability to recoil their original resting length after they have beem stretched Elasticity
Skeletal muscle is surrounded by a connective tissue sheath epimysium
Another connective tissue located outside the epimysium. Surrounds and separates muscles Fascia
Surrounded by loose conective tissue perimysium
Fasciculi are composed of single muscle cells fibers
surrounded by a conective tissue sheath endomysium
Thread like structure that extends from one end of the fiber to the other Myofibrils
Thin myofilaments Actin Myofilaments
Thick Myofilaments Myosin Myofilaments
joined end to end to form the myofibril sarcomeres
Charge difference across the membrane resting membrane potential
Brief reversal back of the charge action potential
Nerve cells that carry action potentials to skeletal muscle fiberz Motor Neurons
Branch that conects to the muscle forms a ________ _______ or _______ near the center of the cell. Neuromuscluar Function or Synapse
Single motor neuron and all the skeletal muscle fibers it innervates Motor Unit
Enlarged nerve terminal Presynaptic Terminal
Space between the presynaptic terminal and the muscle cell Synaptic Cleft
Muscle Fiber Postsynaptic Terminal
Presynaptic Terminal contains Synaptic Vesicles
Diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to the postsynaptiv terminal causing a change in the postsynaptic cell Acetylcholine
Rapidly broken down by an enzymes Acetylcholinesterase
Sliding of the actin myofliaments past myosin myofliaments during contraction Sliding filament mechanism
Contraction of an entire muscle in response to a stimulus that causes the action potential in one or more muscle fibers Muscle Twitch
Muscle fiber will not respond to stimulus until that stimulus reaches a level Threshold
Pint the muscle fiber will contract maximally All-or-none response
Time Between application of a stimulus to a motor neuron and the beginning of a contraction Lag Phase
Time of contraction Contraction Phase
Time durring which the muscle relaxes Relaxation Phase
Where the muscle remains contracted without relaxing Tetany
Increase in number of motor units being activated recruitment
Atrest they can`t stockpile ATP but they can store another high energy molecule Creatine phosphate
Without Oxygen Anaerobic Respiration
With Oxygen Aerobic Respiration
Amount of Oxygen needed in chemical reactions to convert lactic acid to glucose and to replemish the depleted stores of creatine phosphate stores in muscle cells Oxygen Debt
Results when ATP is used during muscle contraction faster than it can be produced in the muscle cells Muscle Fatigue
Equal Distance (Holding Ball) Isometric
Equal Tension (Throwing Ball) Isotonic
Keeps head up and Back straight Muscle Tone
Contract quickly and fatigue quickly Fast-Twitch Fibers
Contract more slowly and are more resistant to fatique Slow-Twitch Fibers
(Head) Most stationary end of the muscle Origin
End of the muscle undergoing the greatest movement Insertion
Portion of the muscle between the origin and the insertion Belly
Muscles that work together to accomplish specific movements Synergists
Muscles that work in opposition to one another Antagonists
Amomg a group of synerhists, if one muscle plays the major role in accomplishing the desired movement Prime Mover
Raises the eyebrows Occipitofrontalis
Closes eye lids Orbicularis Oculi
Pucker`s the lips Bicularis Oris
Flattens the cheeks "Trumpeter`s Muscle" buccinator
Smiling muscle Zygomaticus
Sneering Levator labii superoris
Frowning Depressor Anguli Oris
Chewing Mastication
Cahnges shape of the tongue Intrinsic Tongue Muscles
Moves the tongue Extrinsic Tongue Muscles
Sternocleidomastiod (Lateral Neck; Prime Mover)-(Rotates & Extends the head)-(Twisted neck;wry neck) Neck Muscles
Tendious area of the abdominal wall Linea Alba
each side of the linea alba Rectus Abdominis
inscriptions cross the rectus abdominis at three or more locations, causing the abdominal wall of a well-muscled person to appear segmented. Tendinous Inscriptions
rotates scapula Trapezius
pulls scapula anteriorly Serratus Anterior
The arm is attached to the thorax Pectoralis Major and Lastissimus dorsi muscles
adducts and flexes the arm Pectoralis Major
– medially rotates, adducts, and powerfully extends the arm. “Swimmer muscles” Lastissimus Dorsi
attaches the humerus to the scapula and clavicle, and is the major abductor of the upper limb. Deltoid
extends the forearm. Occupies the posterior compartment of the arm. Triceps brachii
flexes the forearm. Occupies the anterior compartment of the arm. Biceps brachii
flexes forearm Brachialis
flexes and supinates the forearm. Brachioradialis
strong band of fibrous connective tissue that covers the flexor and extensor tendons and holds them in place around the wrist so that they do not “bowstring” during muscle contraction. Retinaculum (bracelet)
flexes the wrist. Flexor carpi
extends the wrist Extensor carpi
flexes the fingers Flexor digitorum
extends the fingers. Extensor digitorum
19 hand muscles, , located within the hand intrinsic hand muscles
muscles, located between the metacarpals, are responsible for abduction and adduction of the fingers. Interossi
buttocks. Contributes most of the mass of the buttocks Gluteus maximus
hip muscle and common injection site. Gluteus medius
extends the leg; anterior thigh muscles Quadriceps femoris
“tailors muscle”; flexes the thigh Sartorius
muscles – posterior thigh muscles; flexes the leg and extends the thigh. Hamstring
form the calf muscle Gastrocnemius and soleus
They join to form calcaneal tendon (Achilles tendon). Flex the foot and toes.
The lateral muscles of the leg peroneus
20 muscles located within the foot, muscles flex extend, abduct, and adduct the toes. intrinsic foot
Created by: caitsthename