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The study and understanding of muscles

the ability of skeletal muscle to shorten with force contractility
the capacity of skeletal muscle to respond to a stimulus. excitability
the ability to be stretched extensibility
ability to recoil to their original resting length after they have been stretched elasticity
each skeletal muscle is surrounded by a connective tissue sheath called the epimysium
is another connective tissue located outside the epimysium, it surrounds and seperates muscles. fascia
A muscle is composed of numerous visible bundles called muscle fasciculi(fasicle), which are surrounded by loose connective tissue called the perimysium
the fasciculi are composed of single muscle cells called fibers
each fiber is surrounded by a connective tissue sheath called the endomysium
the cytoplasm of each fiber is filled with myofibrils- a threadlike structure that extends from one end of the fiber to the other.
thin myofilaments, they resemble 2 minute strands of pearls twisted together. actin myofilaments
thick myofilaments, they resemble bundles of minute golf clubs myosin myofilaments
actin and myosin myofiloaments form highly ordered units called sacromeres
the outside of most cell membranes is positively charged compared to the inside of the cell membrane, which is negatively charged, the charge difference across the membrane is called the resting membrane potential
when a muscle cell is stimulated the membrane characteristics change briefly, the brief reversal back of the charge is called action potential
are nerve cells that carry action potentials to skeletal muscle fibers. motor neurons
axons enter the muscles and branch, each branch that connects to the muscle forms a neuromuscular junction or synapse near the center of the cell
a single motor neuron and all the skeletal muscle fibers it innervates are called a motor unit
the enlarged nerve terminal is the presynaptic terminal
the space between the presynaptic terminal and the muscle cell is the synaptic cleft
the muscle fiber is the postsynaptic terminal
each presynaptic terminal contains synaptic vesicles
synaptic vesicles secrete a neurotransmitter called acetylcholine
the acetylcholine released into the synaptic cleft between the neuron and muscle cell is rapidly broken down by an enzymes acetylcholinesterase
the sliding of actin myofilaments past myosin myofilaments during contraction is called the sliding filament mechanism of muscle contraction
is a contraction of an entire muscle in response to a stimulus that causes the action potential in one or more muscle fibers muscle twitch
a muscle fiber will not respond to stimulus until that stimulus reaches a level called threshold, at which point the muscle fiber will contract maximally
this phenomenon is called the all-or-none response
the time between application of a stimulus to a motor neuron and the beginning of a contraction is the lag phase
the time of contraction is the contraction phase
the time during which the muscle relaxes is the relaxation phase
where the muscle remains contracted without relaxing tetany
the increase in number of motor units being activated is called recruitment
it is necessary for muscle cells to constantly produce ATP. when at rest they cant stockpile ATP but they can store another high-energy molecule, called creatine phosphate
without oxygen anaerobic respiration
with oxygen (more efficient) aerobic respiration
is the amount of oxygen needed in chemical reactions to convert lactic acid to glucose and to replensih the depleted stores of creatine phosphate stores in muscle cells oxygen debt
results when ATP is used during muscle contraction faster than it can be produced in the muscle cells muscle fatigue
the length of the muscle does not change isometric
amount of tension producede through whole contraction isotojnic
refers to constant tension kepps good posture muscle tone
contract and fatique quickly fast twitch fibers
contract slowly fatigue slowly slow twitch
most stationary end end of muscle origin
end of muscle undergoing greatest movement insertion
portion bewteen origon and insertion belly
muscles that work togehter synergists
muscles that work in opposition to one another antagonists
one msucle plays major role in accomplishing the desired movement prime mover
rases eyebrows occiptofrontalis
orbicularis oculi closes eyelids
(kissing muscles) orbicularis oris puckers lips
buccinator flattens cheaks
zygomaticus smiling muscle
levator labii superoris sneering
depressor anguli oris frowning
mastication chewing
group of muscles on each side of the back. Responsible for keeping the back straight and the body erect. Erector spinae
elevate the ribs during inspiration External intercostals
contract during forced expiration Internal intercostals
accomplishes quiet breathing Diaphragm
tendinous area of the abdominal wall called the linea alba, consists of white connective tissue rather than muscle.
On each side of the linea alba is the rectus abdominis
cross the rectus abdominis at three or more locations, causing the abdominal wall of a well-muscled person to appear segmented. Tendinous inscriptions
rotates scapula Trapezius
pulls scapula anteriorly Serratus anterior
The arm is attached to the thorax by the pectoralis major and latissimus dorsi muscles.
adducts and flexes the arm Pectoralis major
medially rotates, adducts, and powerfully extends the arm. “Swimmer muscles” Latissimus dorsi
attaches the humerus to the scapula and clavicle, and is the major abductor of the upper limb. Deltoid
extends the forearm Triceps brachii
flexes the forearm Biceps brachii
flexes forearm Brachialis
flexes the wrist Flexor carpi
extends the wrist Extensor carpi
flexes the fingers Flexor digitorum
extends the fingers. Extensor digitorum
19 hand muscles called the intrinsic hand muscles
muscles, located between the metacarpals, are responsible for abduction and adduction of the fingers. . Interossi
Created by: hfraz97



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