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Chapter 6 muscles

Four major functional characteristics? contractility, excitability, extensibility,elasticity
ability of skeletal muscle to respond to a stimulus? Contractility
capacity of skeletal muscle muscle to respond to stimulus? excitability
ability to be stretched extensibility
ability to recoil elasticity
What do muscles do? produce heat essential for maintenance of normal body temp
Skeletal muscle is surrounded by? epimysium
tissue located ouside of the epimysium? Fascia
Muscle is composed of numerous visible bundles called? fasciculi
Fasciculi is surrounded by? perimysium
Single muscle cells? fibers
Each fiber is surrounded by? endomysium
thread like structure that extends from one end of the fiber to the other? myofibrils
2 major kinds of protein fibers? actin myofilaments, myosin myofilaments
thin myofilaments actin
thick myofilaments myosin
Actin and myosin myofilaments form highly ordered units called? sarcomeres
basic structural and functional unity of the muscle? sarcomeres
Sarcomeres extend from? z line to z line
The z line is an light area called? an I band
I band contains? actin
darker central region in each sarcomere? A band
A band contains? myosin
Charge difference across the membrane? resting membrance potential
brief reversal back of the charge? action potential
nerve cells that carry action potentials to skeletal muscle fibers? motor neurons
Each branch that connects to the muscle forms? neuromusclular junction
neuromusclular junction? synapse
single motor neuron and all the skeletal muscle fibers it innervates? motor unit
enlarged nerve terminal? presynaptic terminal
space between the presynaptic terminal and the muscle cell is the? synaptic cleft
each presynaptic terminal contanins? synaptic vesicles
Synaptic vesicles secrete? acetycholine
Sliding actin myofilaments past myosin myofilaments during contraction? sliding filament mechanism
contraction of an entire muscle? muscle twitch
muscle fiber will not respond to stimulus until stimulus reaches a level called? threshold
time between application of a stimulus to a motor neuron and beginning of a contraction? lag phase
time of contraction? contraction phase
time during which the muscle relaxes? relaxation phase
where muscles remain contracted without relaxing? tetany
increase in number of motor units being activated is called? recruitment
anaerobic respiration? without oxygen
aerobic respiration? with oxygen
the amount of oxygen needed in chemical reactions to covert lactic acid to glucose and to replenish the depleted stores of creatine phosphate stores in muscle smell oxygen debt
when ATP is used during muscle contraction faster than it can be produced Muscle fatigue
length of muscle does not change, but amount of tension increases during contraction process isometric
amount of tension produced by the muscle is constant during contraction, but the length of the muscle changes isotonic
constant tension produced by muscles of the body for long periods of time muscle tone
contract quickly and fatigue quickly fast-twitch fibers
contract more slowly and are more resistant to fatigue Slow-twitch fibers
orgin(head) most stationary end of the muscle
insertion end of the muscle undergoing the greatest movement
portion of the muscle between the origin and insertion belly
muscles that work together to accomplish specific movements synergists
muscles that work in opposition to one another antagonists
muscle that plays the major role in movement prime mover
raises the eyebrows occipito frontails
closes the eyelids orbichloris oculi
puckers the lips oribiculoris
flattens the cheeks buccinator
smiliing muscles zygomaticus
sneering levator labii superoris
frowning depressor angulioris
mastication chewing
mastication is made of temporalis and masseter
tongue muscles Intrinsic, Extrinsic
changes shape of tongue Intrinsic
moves tongue Extrinsic
Neck muscles Sternocleidomastoid
Prime mover: rotates and turns the head Sternocleidomastoid
Toticollis twisted neck
group of muscles on each side of the back. Responsible for keeping the back straight and the body erect. Erector spinae
muscles that move the thorax thoracic muscles
accomplishes quiet breathing. Dome-shaped muscle. Aids in breathing. Diaphragm
contract during forced expiration Internal intercostals
Created by: ErinNoble34



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