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Chapter 6 Muscles

QuestionAnswer
The ability of skeletal muscle to shorten with force. Contractility
The capacity of skeletal muscle to respond to a stimulus. Excitability
The ability to be stretched. Extensibility
The ability to recoil to their original resting length after they have been stretched Elasticity
Each skeletal muscle is surrounded by a connective tissure called the Epimysium
another connective tissue located outside the epimysium, Surrounds & seperates muscles Fascia
A muscle composed of numerous visible bundles called muscle fasiculi which are surrounded by loose connective tissue called perimysium
4 Major Functional Characteristics Contractility, Excitability, Extensibility, Elasticity
Single muscle cells fibers
Threadlike structure that extends from one end of the fiber to another myofibrils
thin myofaliments actin myofilaments
thick myofilaments myosin myofilaments
highly ordered units joined end to end to form the myofibril, basic structural & functional unity of muscle sarcomeres
Dark A Band
Light I Band
Charge differences across the membrane resting membrane potential
brief reversal back of the charge action potential
nerve cells that carry action potentials to skeletal muscle fibers motor neurons
neuromuscular junction synapse
single motor neuron & all skeletal muscle fibers it innervates motor unit
enlarged nerve terminal presynaptic terminal
space between the presynaptic terminal & muscle cell synaptic cleft
secrete a neurotransmiter synaptic vesicles
a neurotransmitter synaptic vessels secrete acetylcholine
broken down by enzymes acetylcholinesterase
sliding of actin filaments sliding filament mechanism
contraction of an entire muscle in response to a stimulus that causes the action potential in one or more muscle fibers Muscle Twitch
muscle fiber will contract maximally threshold
phenomenon of muscle fiber contracing maximally all-or-none response
beginning of contraction lag phase
time of contraction contraction phase
time during muscle relaxes relaxation phase
muscle remains contracted without relaxing Tetany
increase in number of units being activated recruitment
needed for energy muscle contraction, produced in mitochondria, short lived & unstable ATP
Plus phosphate ADP
another high energy molecule creatine phosphate
anerobic without oxygen
aerobic with oxygen
amount of oxygen needed in chemical reactions oxygen debt
isometric equal distance
isotonic equal tension
constant tension produced by muscles of the body for long periods of time muscle tone
Contract quickly & fatigue quickly Fast Twitch Fibers
Slow- Twitch Fibers contract more slowly & more resistant to fatigue.
most stationary end of muscle origin
end of muscle undergoing greatest movement insertion
portion of muscle between origion & insertion belly
muscles that work together to accomplish specific movements synergists
muscles that work in opposition to one another antagonists
muscle that plays major role in accomplishing desired movement prime mover
Occipitofrontalis raises the eyebrows
Orbicularis Oculi (Crow's feet) Closes eyelids
Orbicularis Oris Puckers the lips
Buccinator flattens the cheeks "Trumpeters muscle"
kissing muscles orbicularis oris,Buccinator
Zygomaticus smiling muscle
Levator labii superoris sneering
Depressor anguli oris frowning
mastication chewing
Intrinsic Tongue Muscles changing the shape of the tongue
Extrinsic Tongue Muscles Moves the tongue
Sternocleidomastoid lateral neck; prime mover, rotates & extends the head
Torticollis twisted neck; wry neck
Muscles that move the verterbral column Trunk Muscles
Muscles that move the thorax Thoracic Muscles
Diaphragm accomplishes quiet breathing
Linea alba tendinous area of the abdominal wall
Trapezius rotates scapula
Serratus anterior pulls scapula anteriorly
Pectoralis major adducts and flexes the arm
Latissimus dorsi medially rotates, adducts, and powerfully extends the arm. “Swimmer muscles”
Deltoid attaches the humerus to the scapula and clavicle, and is the major abductor of the upper limb.
Triceps brachii extends forearm. . Occupies the posterior compartment of the arm
Biceps brachii flexes the forearm, Occupies the anterior compartment of the arm.
Brachialis flexes forearm
Brachioradialis flexes & supinates the forearm
Retinaculum (bracelet) strong band of fibrous connective tissue that covers the flexor and extensor tendons and holds them in place around the wrist so that they do not “bowstring” during muscle contraction.
Flexor carpi flexes the wrist
Extensor carpi extends the wrist
Flexor digitorum flexes the fingers
Extensor digitorum extends the fingers
Gluteus maximus buttocks
Quadriceps femoris extends the leg; anterior thigh muscles
Sartorius “tailors muscle”; flexes the thigh
Hamstring muscles posterior thigh muscles; flexes the leg and extends the thigh.
Erector spinae group of muscles on each side of the back. Responsible for keeping the back straight and the body erect.
External intercostals elevate the ribs during inspiration
Internal intercostals contract during forced expiration.
Created by: melohyellow
 

 



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