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Anatomy Muscles

Muscles

QuestionAnswer
the ability of skeletal muscles to shorten the force contractility
the capacity of skeletal muscle to repond to stimulus excitability
the ability to stretch extensibility
ther ability to recoil to original resting lenght and they have been stretched elasticity
skeletal muscle surrounded by a connective tissue sheath epimysium
a connective tissue located outside the epimysium (surronds and seperates muscles) fascia
muscle composed of numerous visible bundles called muscles fascicle perimysium
fasiciculi composed of single muscle cells fibers
fiber is surrounded by a connective tissue sheath andomysium
cytoplasm of each fiber is filled with ( threatlike structure that extends from one end of fiber to the other myofibrils
thin myofilaments (resembles 2 minute strands of pearls twisted together) actin myofilaments
thick myofilaments (resembles bundles of minute golf clubs) myosin myofilaments
actin and myosin myofilaments form highly ordered units sarcomere
what extend from one zline to another sarcomere
each side of zline is a light area called(actin) I band
center of sarcomere is another light area(myosin) H zone
myosin myofilaments areanchored in the center of sarcomere at a dark staining band M line
charge difference across the membrane resting membrane potential
brief reversal back of the charge action potential
nerve cells that carry action potentials to skeletal muscle fibers motor neurons
branch that connect to muscle forms neuromuslcular junction, synapse
single moter neuron and all the skeletal muscle fibers it innervates motor unit
enlarg nerve terminal presynaptic terminal
space between presynaptic terminal and the muscle cell synaptic cavity
muscle fiber is postsynaptic terminal
presynaptic terminal contains synaptic vesicles synaptic vesicles
synaptic vesicles secrete a neurotransmitter called acetycholine
synaptic cliff between the neron and muscle cell is rapidly broken down by enzymes acetylcholinesterase
occurs when actin and myosin slide past one another causeing sarcomere to shorten muscle contractions
muscle fiber postsybaptic terminal
sliding o actin myofilaments past myosin sliding filaments mechanism
which band shorten H and I bands
Which does not change length A bands
contraction of and entire muscle in response to stimulus that causes action potential inone or more muscles muscle twitch
muscle fiber wont respond to stimulus until reaches a leval called threshold
phenomenon is called all or none response
time between spplication of a stimulus to a motor neuron and the beginning of contraction lag phase
time of contraction is the contraction phase
time during which the muscle relaxes relaxation phase
where muscle remains contracted without relaxing tetany
increase number of motor units being activated recruitment
needed for energy for muscle contraction ATP
produced in the mitochondria ATP
short lived and unstable ATP
it is necessary for muscle cells to constantly produce ATP
when at rest they cant stockpile ATP but they can store another high energy molecule called creatine phosphate
without oxygen anaerobic respirations
with oxygen aerobic respirations
amount of oxygen needed in chemical reactions to convert lactic acid to glucose oxygen debt
when ATP is used during muscle contraction faster then it can be produce in the muscles cells muscle fatigue
equal distance isometric
equal tension isotonic
keeps head up back straight muscle tone
contact quickly fatigue quickly (white meat of chicken) fast twitch fibers
contracts more slowly and more resistant to fatigue (dark meat of chicken) slow twitch fibers
(head) most stationary end of muscle origin
end of muscle undergoing the greatest movement insertion
portion of the muscle between the origin and the insertion belly
what has multiple origins and heads muscles
what are the 2 types of muscle contractions isometric and isotonic
points of attachment of each muscle are its origin and insertion (attachment points the muscle is connected to the bone by tendon) general principles
what are the 4 major functional characteristics contractility excitability extensibility elasticity
what helps maintain body heat and keep normal body temperature muscles
what are the 2 major kinds of protein fibers actin & myosin myofilaments
what is the basic structural and functional unity of the muscles sarcomere
A band extends the length of the myosin
myosin myofilaments are anchored in the center of sarcomere at a dark staining can called M line
outside of most cell membranes is positively charged compared to the inside of cell membrane (which is negatively charged) membrane potential
when action potential reaches nerve terminal it causes synaptic vesicles to release acetylochine
acetylochine releases into the synaptic cleft between the neuron and muscle cell
once levels are reached in threshold, at which point the muscle fiber will contract normally
if successive stimuli are given your get successive twitches
muscles that work in opposition to one another antagonists
muscles that work together to accomplish specific movements called synergisrs
if one muscle plays the major role in accomplishing the desired movement is prime mover
Created by: kait_rae11