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chapter 6 Muscles

the ability to shorten the force Contractility
The capacity of skeletal muscle to respond to a stimulus. Excitability
The ability to be stretched Extensibility
Ability to recoil to their original resting length after they have been stretched Elasticity
Surrounded by a connective tissue sheath Epimysium
Connective tissie located outside the epimysium. Fascia
Numerous visible bundles called muscle fasciculi Fascicle
Surrounded by loose connective tissue Perimsium
Surrounded by a connective tissue sheath Endomsium
The cytoplasm of each fiber with Myofibrils
2 major kinds of protein fibers Actin myofilaments and myosin myofilaments
Actin and myosin form Sacromeres
The difference of the charges Resting membrane potential
Brief reversal back of the charge Action Potential
Nerve cells that carry action potentials to skeletal muscle fibers Motor Neurons
Each branch that connects to the muscle forms Neuromusclular junction
Near the center of the cell Synapse
Single motor neuron Motor Unit
Raises the eyebrows Occipitofrontalis
Closes the eyelids Orbicularis Oculi
Pucker's the lips Orbicularis
Flattens the cheeks Buccinator
Smiling Muscle Zygmaticus
Sneering Levator labii Superioris
Frowning Depressor anguli oris
Chewing Mastication
The end of the muscle undergoing the greatest movement Insertion
Portion of the muscle between the origin and the insetion Belly
Most stationary end of the muscle Origin
Muscles that work together to accomlish specific movements synergists
Muscles that work in oppostion to one another Antagonists
One muscle plays the major role in the desired movement Prime Mover
Amount of oxygen needed in chemical reactions to convert lactic acid to glucose and to replenish the depleted stores of creatine phosphate stores in muscle cells Oxygen Debt
equal distance isometric
equal tension Isotonic
without oxygen Anaerobic respiration
with oxygen Aerobic respiration
constant tension produced by muscles of the body for long periods of time. Muscle tone
Contract quickly and fatigue quickly Fast-twitch fibers
contract more quickly and are more resistant to fatigue Slow twitch fibers
thin myofilaments Actin myofilaments
thick myofilaments myosin myofilaments
four major functional characteristics contractility, excitability, extensibility, and elasticity
nerve cells that carry action potentials to skeletal muscle fibers Motor neurons
branch that connects to the muscle form neuromusclular junction
near the center of the cell synapse
single motor neuron and all the skeletal muscle fibers it innervatyes motor unit
enlarged nerve terminal presynaptic terminal
space between the presynaptic terminal and the muscle cell synaptic cleft
muscle fiber postsynaotic terminal
each presynaptic contains synaptic vesicles
secrete a neurotransmitter acetylcholine
prime mover neck muscle
Muscles that move the vertebral column trunk muscles
muscles that move the thorax thoracic muscles
changes the shape of the tongue intrinsic tongue muscles
moves the tongue extrinsic tongue muscles
holding the ball isometric
throwing a ball isotonic
rotates scapula Trapezius
pulls scapula anteriorly Serratus anterior
adducts and flexes the arm Pectoralis major
elevate the ribs during inspiration External intercostals
contract during forced expiration Internal intercostals
time between application of a stimulus to a motor neuron and the beginning of a contraction lag phase
time of contraction contraction phase
time during which the muscle relaxes relaxation phase
where the muscle remains contracted without relaxing tetany
increases in number of motor units being activated recruitment
when at rest they can't stockpile ATP but they can store another high-energy molecule creatine phosphate
amount of oxygen needed in chemical reactions to convert lactic acid to glucose and to replenish the depleted stores of crratine phosphate store in muscle cells oxygen debt
kissing muscle orbicularis oris and buccinator
rotates and extends the head neck muscle
flexes forearm Brachialis
flexes and supinates the forearm Brachioradialis
extends the forearm Triceps brachii
adducts and flexes the arm Pectoralis major
Created by: audreybarr