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contractility shorten with force
excitability respond to a stimulus
extensibility ability to be stretched
elasticity recoil to their original resting length after they have been stretched
epimysium skeletal muscle surrounded by a connective tissue sheath
fascia another connective located outside the epimysium
fascicle muscle composed of numerous visible bundles
perimysium surrounded by loose connective tissue
fibers single muscle cells
muscle fiber single cylindrical cell containing several nuclei
endomysium connective tissue sheath
myofibrils threadlike structure
2 major kinds of protein fiber actin - thin myosin - thick
actin and myosin form sarcomeres
muscle twitch contraction of an entire muscle
isometric equal distance (holding ball)
isotonic equal tension (throwing ball)
fast-twitch fibers contract quickly and fatigue quickly (white meat of a chicken breast)
slow-twitch fibers contract slowly (dark meat of a duck's breast or the legs of a chicken)
origin (head) most stationary end of a muscle
insertion end of muscle undergoing the greatest movement
belly muscle between the origin and the insertion
synergists work together to accomplish specific movments
antagonists muscle that work in oppostion to one another
occipitofrontalis raises the eyebrows
oribicularis oculi closes eyelid (crow feet)
kissing muscles orbicularis oris and buccinator
puckers the lips orbicularis oris
flattens the cheeks buccinator
zygomaticus smiling muscle
levator labii superoris sneering
depressor anguli oris frowning
two mastication muscles temporalis and masseter
mastication chewing
sternocleidomastoid rotates and extends the neck
intrinsic changes shape of tongue
extrinsic moves the tongue
external intercostals elevate the ribs during inspiration
internal intercostals contract during forced expiration
diaphragm accomplishes quiet breathing
linea alba tendinous area of the abdominal wall
tendinous inscriptions cross the rectus abdominis at three or more location
trapezius rotates scapula
serratus anterior pulls scapula anteriorly
pectoralis major adducts and flexes the arm
latissimus dorsi medially rotates, adducts, and powerfully extends arm
deltoid attaches the humerus to the scapula and clavicle
triceps brachii extends the forearm
biceps brachii flexes the forearm
brachioradialis flexes and supinates the forearm
retinaculum (bracelet) strong band of fibrous connective tissue
flexor carpi flexes the wrist
extensor carpi extends the wrist
flexor digitorum flexes the fingers
extensor digitorum extends the fingers
intrinsic hand muscles 19 hand muscles
interossi muscles, located between the metacarpals
gluteus maximus buttocks
gluteus medius hip muscle and common injection site
quadriceps femoris extends the leg; anterior thigh muscles
sartorius "tailors muscle" flexes the thigh
hamstring posterior thigh muscles; flexes the leg and extends the thigh
gastrocnemius and soleus forms the calf muscle
calcaneal tendons flex the foot and toes
peroneus turning the lateral side of the foot outwards
intrinsic foot 20 muscles located within the foot
thoracic muscles muscles that move the thorax
erector spinae group of muscles on each side of the back
ATP (adenosine triphosphate) needed for energy for muscle contraction
recruitment the increase in number of motor units being activated
tetany where the muscle remains contracted without relaxing
2 types of muscle contactions isometric and isotonic
anaerobic respiration without oxygen
aerobic respiration with oxygen
prime mover a group of synergists
Created by: griffeneastham



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