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Chapter 6 Stack


Four major functional characteristics of muscles Contractility, excitability, extensibility, elasticity
Connective tissue sheath around each skeletal muscle Epimysium
Connective tissue sheath surrounding each muscle fiber Endomysium
Basic structural unity of the muscle Sarcomere
Z line (disc), I band, A band, H zone, M line Make up a sarcomere
Acetylcholine Neurotransmitter
Acetylcholinesterase Breaks down Acetylcholine
Muscle twitch A contraction of an entire muscle in response to a stimulus
Lag phase The time between the application of a stimulus to a motor neuron and the beginning of a contraction
Contraction phase Time of contraction
Relaxation phase Time during which the muscle relaxes
Tetany Where the muscle remains contracted without relaxing
Recruitment The increase in number of motor units being activated
Anaerobic Respiration Without oxygen
Aerobic Respiration With oxygen
Muscle fatigue Results when ATP is used during muscle contraction faster than it can be produced
Isometric (Equal Distance) length of the muscle does not change
Isotonic (Equal Tension) amount of tension dows not change
Fast-twitch/slow-twitch Contract quickly and fatigue quickly/contract slowly and are more resistant to fatigue
Origin, Insertion, and Belly Stationary end of the muscle, end of the muscle undergoing the greatest movement, and the portion of the muscle in the middle
Synergists and Antagonists Muscles that work together and muscles that work in opposition
Occipitofrontalis Raises Eyebrows
Orbicularis Oculi Closes eyelids
Orbicularis Oris Puckers lips
Buccinator Flattens cheeks
Zygomaticus Smiling muscle
Levator Labii Superoris Sneering muscle
Depressor Anguli Oris Frowning muscle
Mastication (chewing muscles) Temporalis, Masseter, and two pairs of pterygoids
Two types of tongue muscles Intristic and Extrinsic
Intristic tongue muscles Changes the shape of the tongue
Extrinsic tongue muscles Moves tongue
Neck muscle that rotates and extends the head Sternocleidomastoid
Torticollis Twisted neck; wry neck
Nomenclature Muscles that have names that are descriptive according to their location, size, orientation of fibers, shape, origin, insertion, and function.
Muscles that move the vertebral column Erector Spinae
Thoracic muscles Muscles that move the thorax
Muscles involved in breathing External intercostals – elevate the ribs during inspiration. Internal intercostals – contract during forced expiration
Diaphragm Dome shaped muscle that accomplishes quiet breathing
Linea Alba Tendinous area of the abdominal wall consisting of white connective tissue
Rectus Abdominus Muscle on each side of the linea alba
Tendinous Inscriptions Cross the rectus abdominus at three or more different locations
Scapular movements Trapezius and Serratus Anterior
Trapezius Rotates scapula
Serratus Anterior Pulls scapula anteriorly
Arm movements Pectoralis major, latissimus dorsi, deltoid
Pectoralis major Adducts and flexes the arm
Latissimus dorsi Medially rotates, adducts, and powerfully extends the arm (swimmers muscles)
Deltoid Attaches the humerus to the scapula and clavicle
Forearm movements Triceps brachii, Biceps branchii, Brachialis, Brachioradialis
Triceps branchii Extends the forearm; occupies the posterior compartment of the arm
Biceps branchii Flexes the forearm; occupies the anterior compartment of the arm
Brachialis Flexes forearm
Brachioradialis Flexes and supinates the forearm
Wrist and finger movements Retinaculum (bracelet, Flexor carpi, Extensor carpi, Flexor digitorum, Extensor digitorum
Retinaculum (bracelet) Strong band of fibrous connective tissue that covers the flexor and extensor tendons and holds them in place around the wrist
Flexor carpi Flexes the wrist
Extensor carpi Extends the wrist
Flexor digitorum Flexes the fingers
Extensor digitorum Extends the fingers
Intrinsic hand muscles 19 muscles located in the hand
Interossi muscles Located between the metacarpals, are responsible for abduction and adduction of the fingers
Thigh movements Gluteous Maximus, gluteous minimus
Gluteous Maximus Buttocks
Gluteous Minimus Hp muscle and common injection site
Leg movements Hamstring muscles
Hamstring muscles Posterior thigh muscles
Ankle and Toe movements Gastrocnemius and soleus
Gastrocnemius and Soleus Form the calf muscle; join to form the calcaneal tendon (Achilles tendon); flex the foot and toes
Peroneus muscles Everters; aid in plantar flexion; lateral muscles of the leg
Intrinsic foot muscles Flex extend, abduct, and adduct the toes
Lower limb consists of Gluteous maximus, gluteous minimus, quadriceps femoris, sartorius, hamstring, gastrocnemius and soleus
Trunk muscles Erector spinae, thoracic muscles, external and internal intercostals, rectus abdominus, and diaphragm
Biceps femoris Posterior leg muscles
Rectus femoris Anterior leg muscles
Created by: xxtoesxx



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