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What are the 4 major characteristics of muscles? contractility, excitability, extensibility, elasticity
The ability to shorten with force? contractility
The capacity of skeletal muscle to respond to a stimulus? excitability
The ability to be stretched? extensibility
the ability to recoil to their original resting length after they have been stretched? elasticity
Each skeletal muscle is surrounded by a connective tissue sheath called? epimysium
________ is another connective tissue located outside the epimtsium. Fasica
A muscle is composed of numerous visible bundles called muscle fasciculi(fascicle), which are surrounded by loose connective tissue called the __________. perimysium
The fasciculi are composed of single muscle cells called _______. fibers
Each fiber is surrounded by a connective tissue sheath called the ______________. enomysium
The cytoplasm of each fiber is filled with _______. myofibrils
Myofibrils consist of how many major kinds of protein fibers? 2
thin myofilaments action myofilaments
thick myofilaments myosin myofilaments
Actin and myosin myofilaments form highly ordered units called? sarcomeres
What is the basic structural and functional unity of the muscle? sarcomeres
The outside of most cell membranes is positively charged compared to the inside of the cell membrane is called ______________? resting membrane potential
When a muscle cell is stimulated the membrane characteristics charge briefly, the brief reversal back of the charge is called ___________? action potential
nerve cells that carry action potentials to skeletal muscle fibers. motor neuron
Each branch that connects to the muscle forms a _________________. neuromuscular junction
A single motor neuron and all the skeletal muscle fibers it innervates are called ____________? motor units
The enlarged nerve terminal is the ____________? presynaptic terminal
The space between the presynaptic terminal and the muscle cell is the ______________? synaptic cleft
The space between the presynaptic terminal and the muscle fiber is the ____________? postsynaptic terminal
Each postsynaptic terminal contains _________? synaptic vesicles
Each postsynaptic terminal contains synaptic vesicles that secrete a neurotransmitter called _________________? acetylcholine
___________ _________ occurs as action and myosin myofilaments slide past one another causing the sarcomeres to shorten. Muscle Contraction
The sliding of action myofilaments slide past myosin myofilaments during contraction is called ____________ ________ _____________? sliding filament mechanism
_________ ___________ is a contraction of an entire muscle in response to a stimulus that causes the action potential in one or more muscle fiber. Muscle twitch
A muscle fiber will not respond to stimulus until that stimulus reaches a level called _________, at which point the muscle fiber will contract maximally. threshold
The time between application of a stimulus to a motor neuron and the beginning of a contraction is the ____ ______. lag phase
The time of a lag phase contraction is called _________ _______. contraction phase
The time during which the muscle relaxes is the ___________ ______. relaxation phase
_________ where the muscle remains contracted without relaxing. Tetany
The increase in number of motor units being activated is called __________. recruitment
What is needed for energy for the muscle? ATP
What is ATP adenosine triphosphate
Where is ATP produced? in the mitochondria
True or False, ATP is short lived True
What is ADP adenosine diphosphate
When muscle cells are at rest they can't stockpile ATP but they can store another high-energy molecule, called ______________ __________. creatine phosphate
What means without Oxygen? Anaerobic respiration
What means with Oxygen? Aerobic respiration
The _______ ____ is the amount of amount Oxygen needed in a chemical reaction to convert lactic acid to glucose and to replenish the depleted stores of creatine phosphate stores in muscle cells Oxygen debt.
What results when ATP is used during muscle contraction faster then it can be produced in the muscle cells? Muscle fatigue
How many types of muscle contractions are there? 2
What are the the 2 types of muscle contraction? isometric and isotonic
What does isometric mean? the length of the muscle doesn't change, but the amount of tension increases
What's another way of describing isometric? equal distance
What does isotonic mean? the amount of tension produced by length of muscle changes
What's another was of describing isotonic? equal tension
________ _________ refers to constant tension produced by muscles of the body long periods of time Muscle tone
Created by: austinsargent