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Chapters 3 & 6

plasma membrane separates the cell contents (cytoplasm) from its watery, surrounding environment
cell theory (1) Building blocks of all plants & animals; (2) The smallest functioning units of life; (3) Produced through the division of preexisting cells; (4) Maintains homeostasis
cytology the study of the structure and function of cells
General Functions of Plasma Membrane (1) Physical isolation; (2) Regulation of exchange with the environment; (3) Sensitivity to the environment; (4) Structural support
hydrophilic water loving (heads)
hydrophobic insoluble in water (tails)
phospholipid bilayer mixed in with the fatty acid tails are cholesterol molecules & small quantities of other lipids
permeability the property that determines precisely which substances can enter or leave the cytoplasm
diffusion the movement of molecules from an area of relatively high concentration to an area of relatively low concentration (ex: slug & salt)
osmosis the diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane
filtration hydrostatic pressure forces water across a membrane
carrier-mediated transport requires the presence of specialized membrane proteins
endocytosis the packaging of extracellular materials in a vesicle at the cell surface for import into the cell
exocytosis a vesicle created inside the cell fuses with the plasma membrane and discharges its contents into the extracellular environment
cytosol the intracellular fluid which contains dissolved nutrients, ions, soluble and insoluble proteins, and waste products
organelles internal structures that perform specific functions essential to normal cell structure, maintenance, and metabolism
cytoskeleton an internal protein framework of thread-like filaments and hollow tubules that gives the cytoplasm strength and flexibility
microfilaments thinnest strands of the cytoskeleton; usually composed of the protein actin
microtubules hollow tubes built from the globular protein tubulin
microvilli small, finger-shaped projections of the plasma membrane on the exposed surfaces of many cells
centrioles a cylindrical structure composed of triplets of microtubules
cilia relatively long, slender extensions of the plasma membrane
flagella resemble cilia, but much longer; move a cell through the surrounding fluid, rather than moving the fluid past a stationary cell
ribosomes organelles that manufacture proteins, using the information provided by the DNA of the nucleus
golgi apparatus consists of a set of 5 or 6 flattened membranous discs called cisternae
lysosomes vesicles filled with digestive enzymes; perform cleanup and recycling functions within the cell
mitochondria small organelles that provide energy for the cell
interphase the original stage
mitosis a process that separates and encloses the duplicated chromosomes of the original cell into two identical nuclei
prophase begins when the DNA is coiled
metaphase begins as the chromosomes move to a narrow central zone
anaphase begins when the centromere of each chromatid pair splits and the chromatids separate
telophase the cell prepares to return to interphase
Functions of Skeletal System (1) Support; (2) Storage; (3) Blood Cell Production; (4) Protection; (5) Movement
long bones longer than they are wide (ex: femur/humerus)
short bones roughly equal; bones of the wrist and ankle (ex: carpal bones)
flat bones thin & relatively broad (ex: skull/scapula)
irregular bones complex shapes that do not fit easily into any other category (ex: vertebra)
epiphyses the expanded portions at each end of the bone
compact bone relatively solid; very dense
cancellous bone spongy bone
ossification the process of replacing other tissues with bone
frontal bone forms the forehead & the roof of the orbits (eye sockets)
parietal bone both sides of the skull; forms the roof & the superior walls of the cranium
vomer supports a prominent partition that forms part of the nasal septum
zygomatic articulates with the frontal bone & the maxilla
primary curve thoracic & sacral curves
secondary curve cervical & lumbar curves
vertebral body massive, weight-bearing portion of a vertebra
intervertebral disc not found in the sacrum & coccyx
vertebral arch forms the posterior margin of each vertebral foramen; hollow
thoracic cage consists of the thoracic vertebrae, the ribs, & the sternum
true ribs first 7 pairs of ribs; reach the anterior body wall & are connected to the sternum
false ribs ribs 8-12; do not attach directly to the sternum
sternum breastbone
manubrium articulates with the clavicles of the appendicular skeleton & with the cartilages of the first pair of ribs
xiphoid process usually the last of the sternal components to ossify and fuse
clavicle relatively small and fragile (ex: collar bone)
scapula the anterior surface of the body forms a broad triangle bounded by superior, medial, & lateral borders
trabeculae boney; old bones
nasal complex (septum) the bones that form the superior & lateral walls of the nasal cavities & the sinuses that drain into them
occipital bone forms the posterior & inferior portions of the cranium
temporal bone form part of both the sides of the cranium & the zygomatic arches
sphenoid bone forms part of the floor of the cranium; braces the sides of the skull
ethmoid bone consists of 2 honeycombed masses of bone; forms part of the cranial floor
maxillae (maxillary) articulate with all other facial bones except the mandible
palantine bone form the posterior surface of the bony palate or hard palate; "roof of the mouth"
Created by: JTBanks



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