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The Cell

Human Anatomy

QuestionAnswer
CYTOLOGY STUDY OF CELLS
CYTOPLASM FLUID THAT SURROUNDS THE ORGANELLES; CYTOSOL IS INSIDE IT
CYTOSOL SUBSTANCE INSIDE CYTOPLASM; IT CONTAINS DISSOLVED SUBSTANCES LIKE O2 AND CO2, CARBOHYDRATES AND IONS
PLASMA MEMBRANE JELLY LIKE SUBSTANCE; FUNCTION: creates a barrier by separating cytoplasm from the "External" environment. Regulates what enters/leaves from a cell. Structure: phospholipid bilayer
PHOSPHOLIPID BILAYER 2 layers. Embedded into the Phospholipd layer is "protein"(proteins controls what leave and enters the cells.
PASSIVE PROCESS Doesn't require energy.
ACTIVE PROCESS Does require energy
DIFFUSION Movement of dissolvable substances (from High to Low)
OSMOSIS Movement of H20 from High to Low
VESICULAR TRANSPORT Type of Active Transport; (vesicles-small sacs with a membrane wall)
Exocytosis substances going OUT of cells
Endocytosis Substances Entering the cells
Phagocytosis special type of Endocytosis
Organelles Cell organs; 2 types: membrane and non-membrane bound
Cytoskeleton Supports the cell that helps to maintain its shape
3 Filaments of Cytoskeleton Micro Filaments, Inter mediate, MicroTubules
MicroFilaments Thinnest Filament
InterMediate Thicker Filament
MicroTubules Thickest Filament
Centrioles Small sections of Microtubules; Function: holds plasma membrane to Cytoplasm. Act as tracks which organelles move along but doesn't allow Plasma Membrane. to pass through.
Ribosomes Protieins used to make Protiens. Translates(convert) RNA from nucleus into Protiens.
Free Ribosome Floats in Cytoplasm
Mitochondria Kidney Shaped; Creates surface area. This is where O2 & glucose is used to make ATP by a process called Cellular Respiration.
Christae Folds~~
ATP (used for energy) Adenosine Tri Phosphate
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Ribosomes are Attached; Proteins synthesized(created) at Ribosomes enter Rough E.R and gets modified
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum Ribosomes are not Attached; Involved in Protien Synthesis;Synthesizes lipids, Carbohydrates, Store calcium ions, Detoxify Toxins
Golgi Apparatus Stores, Packages and Transports
Rough and Smooth ER Series of membranous sacs Flattened
Lysosome ("LY-SOL") cleaner upper of the cell with digestive enzymes; Consumes cell debris and Old organelles.
Nucleus Contains Nucleolus; Surrounded by nuclear membrane; Most cells have nucliei RBC's doesn't.
Nuclear Envelope Double membrane
Nuclear Pores Holes in Nuclear Envelope
What makes Protiens? Amino Acids (in Nucleus)
Nucleolus condensed of RNA and DNA where Ribosomes are made; It contains the DNA code contained in 23 pairs of chromosomes. DNA codes for RNA
Microvilli Projections of Plasma Mem.; Contains Cytoplasm.
Functions of Microvilli Increases Surface Area; Example: Microvilli in small intestine makes space for food.
Cilia Protien Filaments beats in a Particular direction; Example: Respiratory Tract. moves mucus and particles in a particular direction.
Flagella (____,...) Long Protien Filament that gives the sperm mobility
Homeostasis Maintaining Equilibrium; Negative Feedback= what goes up must come down: temp, ph etc} Positive Feed back=what goes up must go up: Already bleeding and More bleeding occurs so that leukocytes can heal a wound.
Created by: Lee