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Intro to neuroscience

Collection of neurons within the PNS ganglion
Slipper-shaped plate of thickened ectoderm, lying over notochord neural plate
Neural plate invaginates along its central axis to from this neural groove
Raised border of neural groove are known as neural folds
By end of the 3rd week neural folds move closer together and fuse in the midline forming neural tube
Formatoin of the neural tube begins in this region and progresses in what direction(s) cervical, cranial and caudal
This embryonic structure gives rise to the brain and the spinal cord neural tube
Neuroectodermal cells lying at the tip of neural folds separate from neighboring cells and migrate to sides of neural tube forming these cells neural crest cells
Name 5 things derived from neural crest cells sensory ganglion and crainal nerves, autonomic ganglion, schwann cells, menniges of the brain and spinal cord, melanocytes, suprarenal medulla, and some skeletal and muscle components of the head
Cephalic end of neural tube gives rise to 3 dilatations, or primary brain vesicles...what are they prosencephalon, mesencephalon, and rhombencephalon
The prosencephalon corresponds to what embryologic structure forebrain
The mesencephalon correlates to what embroylogic structure midbrain
The rhombencephalon correlates to what embryologic structure hindbrain
The prosencephalon is further divied into telencephalon and diencephalon
The rhombencephalon is further divided into metencephalon and myelencephalon
The telencephalon relates to what brain region cerebral hemispheres
The diencephalon relates to what brain region(s) thalamus and hypothalamus
The metencephalon relates to what brain region(s) pons and cerebellum
The myelencephalon relates to what brain region(s) medulla oblongata
Cavity of the rhombencephalon 4th ventricle
Cavity of the mesencephalon cerebral aquaduct (aqueduct of Sylvius)
Cavity of the diencephalon 3rd ventricle
Cavity of the telencephalon lateral ventricles
Rough endoplasmic reticulum forms prominent clumps in the neuronal cytoplasm know as Nissl bodies
Nissl bodies are found in what part(s) of neurons cell body (soma) and dentrites
Transports molecules and organelles from cell body to distal end of axon anterograde axonal transport
Returns used or worn out materials to cell body for restoration, transports materials taken up by endocytosis retrograde axonal transport
Multilayered phosopholipid sheath formed by supporting cells myelin
The most important characteristic of myelin is increase conduction velocity of nerve impulses
This type of neuron gives rise to a single cell process which divides into periphral and central processes unipolar neuron
Unipolar neurons are found in what location(s) sensory ganglion and some cranial nerves
This type of neuron's cells body gives rise to 1 axon and 1 dendrite bipolar neuron
Bipolar neurons are found in what location(s) retina and ganglion of the vestibulocochlear nerve
This type of neuron's cell body gives rise to 1 axon and 2 or more dendrites multipolar neuron
This type of neurons lies entirely with in CNS and establishes neuronal circuits between sonsory and motor neurons and between other neurons like them interneurons
This type of fiber carries impulses from the periphral receptors to the CNS afferent(sensory)
This type of fiber carries impulses from the CNS to periphral effectors efferent(motor)
Groups of neuronal cell bodies with similar anatomical connections and functions within the CNS nuclei (grey matter)
Groups of axons that have similar origin, termination, and course and transmit the same type of information tracts
A series of neurons designed to carry a specific type of information from one site to another(e.g. periphral receptors to cerebral cortex, from peripheral receptors to cerebellum) pathway
Term used to define the crossing of major ascending and descending tracts to the opposite side within the CNS decussation
This type of cell lines the ventricles of the brain and central canal of the spinal cord ependymal cells
This type of cell are phagocytes that engulf debris resulting from injuries, infections, or disease in the CNS mircoglial cells
This type of cells has processes that reach the surface of the brain and spinal cord and form a protective covering (external limiting membrane or glial membrane) astrocytes
This type of cell assists in the blood-brain barrier and assists with electrolyte balance of the CNS astrocytes
This type of cell removes neurotransmitters from the synaptic cleft and produces trophic factors necessary for neuronal survival, also forms scars after CNS injury astrocytes
This type of cell is involved in formation and maintenance of myelin in the CNS oligodendrocytes
One oligodendrocyte forms myelin around one or many axons in the CNS? many (40-50)
This cell is involved in the formation and maintenance of myelin in the PNS, and maintains how many axons? Schwann cell (part of 1 axon)
This type of cell surround neuronal cell bodies in the sensory and autonomic ganglion Capsular (Satellite) cells
Created by: justice2