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Ocular A&P#3 Midterm

Questions Ocular A&P (TARGETS = slides!) Muscles Lens, Cornea, Uvea, Sclera,etc

What does "SIN" in SIN-RAD mean? **Remember, this is not accounting for the medial and lateral rectus muscles. (not sure if this will be a question on the test or just a way to help us remember) SIN- Superior muscles are INtorter. The superior rectus and superior oblique will INTORT. Therefore, the inferior muscles, the IR and IO will do the opposite- EXtort.
What does "RAD" in SIN-RAD mean? RAD- Rectus muscles are ADductors. The superior and inferior rectus muscles will ADduct, so therefore the Oblique's will do the opposite - ABduct.
Which muscle is the primary depressor? What is its' innervation? Inferior Rectus III CN
Which muscle is the primary elevator? What is its' innervation? Superior Rectus III CN (Oculomotor)
Which muscle is the primary abductor? What is its' innervation? Lateral Rectus VI CN (Abducens)
Which muscle is the primary adductor? What is its' innervation? Medial Rectus III CN
What is the primary action of the superior oblique? What is its' innervation? INtorts (INtortion) IV CM (trochlear)
What is the primary action of the inferior oblique? What is its' innervation? EXtorsion III CN (Oculomotor)
Which two muscles are INtorters (Incycloduction)? Superior Rectus and Superior Obliques
Which two muscles are EXtorters (Excycloduction)? Inferior rectus and Inferior Oblique
Which two muscles have as secondary action - Adduction? Superior and Inferior Rectus
Which two muscles have as secondary action - abduction? Superior and Inferior Obliques
Which muscles does the oculomotor nerve supply [5]? Superior, Medial, and Inferior Rectus, Inferior Oblique, and Levator Palpebrae
What supplies the innervation of Mueller's superior palpebral muscle? Sympathetic nerve
Which nerve innervates the muscle that closes the lids and what is the muscles name? VII CN (Facial) Orbicularis Oculi
What is the average horizontal corneal diameter? 12.0mm
Which epithelial cells reproduce (mitosis) more cells? Basal
A small abrasion of the epithelium heals in how many days? 1
Which layer forms the most important pump to keep the cornea from getting edematous? Endothelium
What innervates the cornea? The V Cn (Trigeminal V1)
What layer attaches the corneal epithelial cells to Bowman's membrane? Basal membrane (basal lamina)
Which layers of the cornea have no nerve supply? Posterior
Which layer of cornea develops edema (fluid retention) first? The corneal stroma
Which layer of the cornea decreases in number of cells with age or disease? Endothelium
What is the disorder with increased cupping of the disc, loss of retinal nerve fibers, visual field loss, and usually abnormal high IOPs? Glaucoma
What are causes of syneresis? Aging is the main cause. But, trauma and inflammation can also cause it.
Where is the most likely site for the cause of increased intraocular pressure? The trabecular meshwork.
What causes photopsia? Traction on the retina by the vitreous (vitreo-retinal traction).
What are the variables in intraocular pressure readings? Corneal thickness, blood pressure, age, scleral rigidity, posture, time of day, exercise, breathing. There are more.
What is the approximate lens dimensions? 10X4mm
What is the approximate power of the lens? 16-20D
An increase in diameter each year with age, tends to make lenses more... Myopic
What is the average accommodation amplitude of a child 10 or under? 10-14D
What is the average accommodation amplitude of a 45 year old? 3.5D
What is the main risk factor for forming cataracts? Age
What else always accompanies Accommodation? Miosis
The cortex develops when? After sexual maturation
The adult nucleus develops when? Between birth and sexual maturation.
When does the fetal and embryonal nucleus form? Before birth
Where is the anterior pole of the lens? Center of the anterior lens
Where do the zonules attach? Around the equator of the lens
The thinnest capsular area is? Posterior pole of the lens
What is it when the crystalline lens is opaque? Lens opacity. Cataract
What is a nuclear sclerosis? A central, yellowish cataract
What is a brunescent cataract like? A hard brown cataract
What measures the axial length of the globe? Biometry
Posterior subcapsular cataract Opacity beneath the capsule.
What is photopsia? The perception of flashing lights. These can take the form of sparks of light, like lighting, or sometimes colored patterns, swirls, 'zigzags' or kaleidoscope patterns.
What is syneresis of the eye? Vitreous gel shrinks, and is replaced by clear fluid,then it separates from retina. As gel separates,it pulls on nerve fibers of the retina, stimulating them, and results in flashes. When it completely separates,it often result in "vitreous floaters".
Created by: Leequa