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OcularA&P #1 Midterm

Terms & Definitions Ocular A&P: Adexna, Intro to Orbit, & some muscle questions

TermDefinition
Emmetropia Normal vision. Rays of light focus on the retina. Absolutely no refractive error
Hypertropia Strabismus in which there is permanent upward deviation of the visual axis of an eye.
Myopia Near-sighted. Rays of light focus anterior to the retina.
Astigmatism Rays of light focus at different areas.
Posterior Pole Area of retina involving optic disc and macula.
Cranial Nerves of the Eye and Adnexa CN II, CN III, CN IV, CN V (V1,V2,V3), CN VI, CN VII,
CN II Optic Nerve (vision)- Sensory
CN III Oculomotor- motor to eye and four external ocular muscles
CN IV Trochlear- motor to superior oblique muscle
CN V Trigeminal -Sensory to the face, globe V1- Ophthalmic -upper face, lids, eye, tip of nose V2- Maxillary -Mid face V3- Mandibular -lower face (don't deal with much in Ophthalmology)
Fusion Ability to use both eyes together and have depth perception.
Bones of the Ocular Orbit Frontal, Lacrimal, Sphenoid, Zygomatic, Ethmoid, Maxillary, Palatine
Osteopathy Any disorder of the bones
Words ending in -itis Means an inflammation
Pan Involves all of an organ
Exophthalmos Forward (anterior) displacement of the globe.
Proptosis Forward (anterior) displacement of the globe. Buldging
Endophthalmitis Inflammation(usually infection) of inside of eye
Enophthalmos Recession (posterior) of globe
Cellulitis Inflammation of subcutaneous tissues
The normal average axial length of the globe 24.5mm
The four paranasal sinuses Frontal, Ethmoid, Sphenoid, Maxillary
Hyperemia Redness (erythema)
Chemosis Swelling (edema)
Ecchymosis Blood in the tissues
Ptosis Drooping lid
Normal tear pH 7.4
These muscles are involuntary (4) Dilator of iris, Mueller's superior tarsal (lid), Iris sphincter, Ciliary muscles
The rectus muscles originate from _______ and insert in ________. Annulus of Zinn - Spiral of Tillaux
Ductions involve one eye and Version involves two eyes. True or False True
Name the two vergence movements Convergence and Divergence
Concomitant Same measurements in all directions
Incomitant Different measurements in different directions
Dextroversion Right gaze
Levoversion Left gaze
Exo- Eye turning out
Infraversion Down gaze
Superior oblique originates from _______ and is innervated by ______ sphenoid bone, the IV CN
Amblyopia Suppressed vision, also known as "lazy eye"
Inferior oblique originates from _____and is innervated by ________ medial wall,the III CN
The four rectus muscles arise from __________ The Annulus of Zinn
Eso- Eye turning in
Tropia Constant strabismus
Synergist (Yoke) Muscle moving eye in same direction as agonist
Antagonist Muscles moving eye in opposite directions
Lateral Rectus arises from _________ and is innervated by the __________ Annulus of Zinn,the VI CN
Vergences are ________ movements and involve _______ Disconjugated and involve both eyes. *Side note (Disconjugated movement of eyes means rotation of the two eyes in opposite directions, as in convergence or divergence.)
Krimsky test Measures corneal light reflex deviation with prism
Hirschberg test Corneal light reflex test
Prisms Used to measure amount of strabismus
4 prism test Test for small angle esotropia
Cover-Uncover test Test to determine if it is a tropia or it is a phoria
Cross Cover Test Test to see if any stabismus is present
Forced Ductions Test performed by MD with forceps
Bielchowski Test Head tilt test for superior oblique (IVth CN) palsy
OKN (Optokinetic nystagmus) Normal, induced by moving objects
Nystagmus Rapid, rhythmic, involuntary eye movements, smooth in one direction
End-Point Nystagmus Normal, occurs on lateral versions. A jerky, physiologic nystagmus occurring in a normal individual when attempts are made to fixate a point at the limits of the field of fixation.
Phoria Stabismus only when fusion is disrupted
Agonist Primary muscle moving the eye
Hyperopia Far-sighteness. Rays of light focus behind the retina.
Created by: Leequa