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12 GOV Vocab CH 18

American Government Study material for Vocab CH 18

TermDefinition
Jurisdiction The authority of a court to hear a case.
exclusive jurisdiction Power of the federal courts alone to hear certain cases
concurrent jurisdiction Power shared by federal and State courts to hear certain cases.
plaintiff In civil law, the party who brings a suit or some other legal action against another (the defendant) in court.
Defendant In a civil suit, the person against whom a court action is brought by the plaintiff; in a criminal case, the person charged with the crime.
original jurisdiction The power of a court to hear a case first, before any other court.
appellate jurisdiction The authority of a court to review decisions of inferior (lower) courts
criminal cases A case in which a defendant is tried for committing a crime as defined by the law.
civil cases A case involving a noncriminal matter such as a contract dispute or a claim of patent infringement.
Docket A court’s list of cases to be heard.
writ of certiorari An order by a higher court directing a lower court to send up the record in a given case for review
certificate A method of putting a case before the Supreme Court; used when a lower court is not clear about the procedure or rule of law that should apply in a case and asks the Supreme Court to certify the answer to a specific question.
majority opinion Officially called the Opinion of the Court; announces the Court’s decision in a case and sets out the reasoning upon which it is based.
precedent Court decision that stands as an example to be followed in future, similar cases.
concurring opinion Written explanation of the views of one or more judges who support a decision reached by a majority of the court, but wish to add or emphasize a point that was not made in the majority decision.
dissenting opinion Written explanation of the views of one or more judges who disagree with (dissent from) a decision reached by a majority of the court
redress Satisfaction of a claim payment.
civilian tribunal A court operating as part of the judicial branch,entirely separate from the military establishment.
court-martial A court composed of military personnel, for the trial of those accused of violating military law.
Created by: breckart2