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Tissues A&P

What is a gene? DNA segment that carries a blueprint for building one protein
What are the functions of a protein? Build materials for cells and act as enzymes
What is essential for protein synthesis to occur? RNA
Tissues Groups of cells with similar structure and functions
What are the four primary types of tissues? Epithelial, Connective, Muscle, Nervous
Where are epithelial tissues located? Body coverings, Body linings, Glandular tissue
What are the functions of epithelial tissues? Protection, Absorption, Filtration, Secretion
What are characteristics of epithelial tissues? Cells fit close together, apical surface is the free surface, lower surface rests on basement membrane, avascular, regenerate easily
Simple Epithelia One layer
Stratified Epithelia More than one layer
Squamous Flat cell
Cuboidal Cube-shaped cell
Columnar Column-like cell
Simple Squamous Single layer of flat cells, lines body cavities and lungs
Serous Membrane (serosae) Slick membranes covering organs in the ventral cavity
Simple Cuboidal Single layer of cube-like cells, found in glands and their ducts
Simple Columnar Single layer of column-like cells, lines digestive tract
Pseudostratified Columnar Single layer but some cells shorter than others
Stratified Squamous Found as protective covering where friction is common; skin, mouth, esophagus
Stratified Cuboidal Two layers of cuboidal cells
Stratified Columnar Surface cells are columnar but vary in shape and size
Transitional Epithelium Shape of cells depend on the amount of stretching, lines organs in urinary system
Gland One or more cells responsible for secreting a particular product
Secretion Active process in which the glandular cells obtain needed materials form the blood
What are two major gland types? Endocrine, Exocrine
Endocrine gland Ductless since secretions diffuse into blood vessels
Exocrine gland Secretions empty through ducts to the epithelial surface
Connective Tissue Binds body tissues together, protects the body, and provides protection
Extracellular Matrix Non-living material that surrounds living cells
What are two main elements of the Extracellular Matrix? Ground Substance and Fibers
What are three types of fibers? Collagen, Elastic, Reticular
Vascular Good blood supply
Avascular Poor blood supply
Bone tissue Used to protect and support the body
Hyaline Cartilage Most common type of cartilage composed of collagen fibers
Elastic Cartilage Provides elasticity
Fibrocartilage Forms cushion like discs between vertebrae
Dense Connective tissue Main matrix element is collagen fiber
Tendons Attach skeletal muscle to bone
Ligaments Attach bone to bone at joints
Areolar tissue soft, pliable tissue like "cobwebs" that functions as a packing tissue
Adipose tissue Insulates the body, protects some organs, and serves as site for fuel storage
Reticular connective tissue Delicate network of interwoven fibers that forms stroma of lymphoid organs
Blood tissue Blood cells surrounded by fluid matrix called blood plasma
Muscle tissue Function is to produce movement
What are three types of muscle tissue? Skeletal, Cardiac, and Smooth
Skeletal muscle Under voluntary control, contracts to pull on bones or skin
What are the characteristics of skeletal muscle cells? Striated, multinucleate, long and cylindrical
Cardiac muscle Under involuntary control, function is to pump blood
What are the characteristics of cardiac muscle cells? Cells are attached to other cardiac muscles at intercalated disks, striated, one nucleus per cell
Smooth muscle Under involuntary control, found in walls of hollow organs
What are the characteristics of smooth muscle cells? No visible striations, one nucleus per cell, spindle-shaped
Nervous tissue Send impulses to other areas of the body
Regeneration Replacement of destroyed tissue by the same kind of cells
Fibrosis Repair by dense (fibrous) connective tissue (scar tissue)
What are the events in tissue repair? Capillaries become very permeable, formation of granulation tissue, and regeneration of surface epithelium
What tissues regenerate easily? Epithelial, fibrous connective, and bone tissues
What tissue regenerates poorly? Skeletal muscle
What tissues are replaced largely by scar tissue? Cardiac muscle and nervous tissue
Created by: michael04



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