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ANT Mid Term

Anatomy Mid Term Chapters 1-11

To properly reconnect the disconnected bones of a human skeleton, you would need to have a good understanding of? anatomy
Which of the following best illustrates the idea of increasing levels of organizational complexity? chemical-->cellular-->tissue-->organ-->system -->organismal
Homeostasis is defined as what? The tendency to maintain constant, favorable internal body conditions.
The part of a feedback system that receives the input and generates the output command is the control center
An itch in your axillary region would cause you to scratch your armpit
If you were facing a person who is in the correct anatomical position, you could observe the crural region
Where would you look for the femoral artery? thigh
The right ear is ___ to the right nostril. lateral
Your chin is ___ in relation to your lips. inferior
Your skull is ___ in relation to your brain. superficial
A magician is about to separate his assistant’s body into superior and inferior portions. The plane through which he will pass his magic wand is the transverse
Which statement is NOT true of body cavities? The organs in the cranial and vertebral cavities are called viscera.
To expose the heart for open heart surgery, the surgeon would need to cut through the pericardial cavity
To find the urinary bladder, you would look in the pubic region
Which of the following body systems(s) is(are) the primary controller(s) of homeostasis? nervous & endocrine
The nucleus of an atom contains protons and neutrons.
What type of bonds are created by atoms giving away and taking electrons? Ionic bonds
Combining atoms of two or more different elements results in a(n) compound
Matter that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by ordinary chemical reactions is known as a chemical element.
Chlorine (Cl) has an atomic number of 17. An atom of chlorine may become a chloride ion (Cl-) by gaining one electron.
(T/F) A solution that has a pH of 9.4 is acidic. FALSE
The type of reaction by which a disaccharide is formed from two monosaccharides is known as a dehydration synthesis reaction.
Which of the following contains the genetic code in human cells? DNA
What is the principal energy-transferring molecule in the body? ATP
(T/F) Water helps lubricate a variety of structures in the body. TRUE
The difference in H+ concentration between solutions with a pH of 3 and a pH of 5 is that the solution with the pH of 3 has ___ H+. 100 times more
(T/F) All proteins are enzymes. FALSE
Which type of lipid is the least desirable for maintaining good health? saturated fat
If an enzyme is exposed to an extremely high temperature, it will denature.
In what form are lipids stored in the adipose (fat) tissue of the body? triglycerides
Approximately 96% of your body’s mass is composed of only what four elements. C-H-O-N
Which of the following organic compounds are NOT paired with their correct subunits (building blocks)? proteins/monosaccarides
If the extracellular fluid contains a greater concentration of solutes than the cytosol of the cell, the extracellular fluid is said to be? Hypertonic
The proteins found in the plasma membrane are primarily? glycoproteins
To enter many body cells, glucose must bind to a specific membrane carrier protein, which assists glucose to cross the membrane without using ATP. This type of movement is known as? Facilitated Diffusion
A red blood cell placed in a hypotonic solution undergoes? hemolysis
Many white blood cells engulf bacteria through? Phagocytosis
Which organelles are involved in the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide int he liver? Peroxisomes
What process requires ATP? active transport
Nicotine in cigarette smoke interferes with the ability of cells to rid the breathing passageways of debris. Which organelles are "paralyzed" by nicotine? cilia
Many proteins found in the plasma membrane are formed by the ___ and packaged by the ___? ribosomes, Golgi complex
If the smooth ER were destroyed, a cell would not be able to? synthesis fatty acids and steroids.
Water moves into and out of red blood cells through? osmosis
A cell undergoing mitosis goes through the following stages in which sequence? prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
Transcription involves copying information contained in DNA to mRNA
If a DNA strand has a nitrogenous base sequence TACGA, then the sequence of bases on the corresponding mRNA would be AUGCU
In what phase is a cell highly active and growing? interphase
Movement of materials into and out of the nucleus is controlled by the? nuclear pores
What type of tissue covers and lines the body and its parts? Epithelial
Epithelial tissue can be classified according to the ___ and ___ of its cells? shape, arrangement
Associated with the inner lining of some joints between bones are what type of membranes? synovial
The presence of ___ in a tissue allos stretching and ability to return to the original shape. elastic fibers
(T/F) Except for cartilage, connective tissue has a rich blood supply? TRUE
The interior of your nose is lined with? a mucous membrane
In the repair of tissue, scar tissue appears when? fibroblasts secrete extracellular materials and collagen
Which is NOT true concerning epithelial tissue? epithelial tissue is well supplied with blood vessels.
The hair structure that responds to touch is the? root plexus
What changes when exposed to ultraviolet radiation of the sun? skin coloration
In which portion of the skin will you find dermal papillae? superficial region of the dermis
If you pricked your fingertip with a needle, the first layer of epidermis you penertrate is? stratum corneum
A connective tissue with a liquid extracellular matrix is blood
The four main types of tissue are connective, epithelial, muscular, and nervous.
Which of the following materials would NOT be found in the extracellular matrix of connective tissue? keratin
Which connective tissue cells secrete antibodies? plasma cells
Modified columnar epithelial cells that secrete mucus are ___ cells. goblet
Which tissue forms the bulk of the heart wall? cardiac muscle
Stratified squamous epithelium functions mainly to perform what function? protection
What tissue type is found in tendons? dense regular connective tissue
In what tissue type would you find stores of calcium and phosphorus? bone
Which of the following statements is true concerning glandular tissue? Endocrine gland secretions diffuse into the bloodstream; exocrine gland secretions enter ducts.
The red or pink tones seen in some skin are due to hemoglobin in the blood moving through capillaries in the dermis.
When you have your hair cut, scissors are cutting through the hair ___. shaft
Which of the following is NOT true concerning eccrine sweat glands? They produce a viscous secretion.
Which tissue is the main type found in the deeper region of the dermis? dense irregular connective
Which of the following is NOT DIRECTLY a function of skin? calcium production
Which of the following is NOT true concerning hair? Hirsutism is another name for male-pattern baldness.
Sebaceous glands ___. secrete an oily substance
As keratinocytes in the stratum basale are pushed toward the skin’s surface, they ___. begin to die
To activate vitamin D, the skin cells need to be exposed to ___. ultraviolet light
To prevent an unwanted hair from growing back, you must destroy the ___. hair matrix
Aging can result in ___. a decline in the activity of sebaceous glands
The portion of the nail that is responsible for nail growth is the ___. nail matrix
Which of the following is NOT an accessory structure of the skin? dermal papillae
What is the response by effectors when the body temperature is elevated? Sweat glands increase production of sweat.
If you were giong to design a hollow organ that needed to expand and have stretchability, which pithelial and connective tissue would you use? transitional epithelium an delastic connective tissue
(T/F) Epithelial tissue is well supplied with blood vessels? FALSE
If hands are not properly position when performing CPR there is a risk of fracturing which bony part? xiphoid process of the sternum
The ribs articulate with the thoracic vertebrae
The presence of an epiphyseal line in a long bone indicates that the bone has stopped growing in length
The hyoid bone is unique because it does not articulate with any other bone
The bones that form the pectoral girdle are the clavicle and scapula
The main hormone that regulates the Ca2+ balance between bone and blood is parathyroid hormone
Which of the following does NOT describe spongy bone? diaphyses of long bones
In which of the following individuals might you expect to find the smallest bone mass? 80-year-old bedridden female
What is the shape of the humerus? long
What is the shape of the carpus? short
What is the shape of the vertebra? irregular
What is the shape of the sternum? flat
Where long bones form joints, the epiphyses are covered with hyaline cartilage
What substance in bone contributes to its tensile strength? collagen
The skeletal system is responsible for? All of the above
A joint that has a ___ fit offers a great amount of movement and is ___ likely to become dislocated. loose, more
An example of a fibrous joint in which the bones are immovable in an adult is suture
Pulling out a tooth would disarticulate which type of joint? gomphosis
Which of the following is NOT a function of synovial fluid? helps to strengthen the joint
Articular cartilage and bursae would most likely be found in which of the following? the knee
At the synovial joint, the articulating bones are held together and strengthened by the articular capsule
The joints between the vertebrae and the joint between the hip bones are examples of which joint type? symphysis
Which of the following diarthrotic joints allows for the greatest degree of movement? ball-and-socket joint
As your leg moves in the most anterior position to kick a ball, the femur will be ___ and the knee ___? flexed; extended
Shaking your head to indicate "yes" involves ___; moving your head to indicate "no" involves ___? flexion and extention; rotation
In the anatomical position, the palms are supinated
A fluid-filled sac found between skin and bone that helps reduce friction between the skin and bone is a bursa
Moving the mandible for chewing involves depression and elevation
The sarcolemma of muscle cells is equivalent to the ___ of other cells. plasma membrane
The connective tissue component that surrounds fascicles is the? perimysium
Which of the following statements about skeletal muscle tissue is NOT true? Skeletal muscle fibers contain gap junctions that help conduct action potentials from one fiber to another.
The reddish color of slow oxidative and fast oxidative-glycolytic skeletal muscle fibers is due to? the large amount of myoglobin
You begin an intensive weightlifting plan bc you want to enter a weightlifting contest. During the activity your skeletal muscles will obtain energy (ATP) primarily through? anaerobic glycolysis
Muscle contractions are smooth, coordinated movements because of ? motor unit recruitment
When ATP in the sarcoplasm is exhausted, the muscle must rely on ___ to quickly produce more ATP from ADP for contraction. creatine phosphate
A motor unit consists of? a motor neuron and all of the muscle fibers it stimulates
Thick filaments? have myosin heads used for the power stroke.
The chemical that prevents the continuous stimulation of a muscle fiber is acetyl cholinesterase
Which of the following is NOT associated with muscle fatigue? decrease in lactic acid levels
Which of the following binds to Ca2+ ? troponin
Skeletal muscles are named using several characteristics. Which characteristic is NOT used to name skeletal muscles? speed of contraction
What would happen if ATP were suddenly unavailable after the sarcomere had begun to shorten? The myosin heads would be unable to detach from actin.
Which of the following are incorrectly matched? autonomic nervous system: includes parasympathetic, sympathetic, an denteric divisions
The release of neurotransmitters from the synaptic vesicles is dependent on the presence of ___ in the synaptic end bulb. calcium
The type of cell that produces myelin sheaths around axons in the CNS is the? oligodendrocyte
White matter in the CNS is a ? tract
Which of the following is NOT true concerning the repair of nervous tissue? If the cell body is not damaged, neurons the in the CNS may be able to repair themselves.
In a resting neuron the sodium-potassium pumps help maintain the low concentration of Na+ inside the cell.
In the depolarization phase of a nerve impulse, voltage-gated ion channels open, resulting in a(n)? rush of Na+ into the neuron.
If a stimulus is strong enough to generate an action potential, the impulse generated is of a constant size. A stronger stimulus cannot generate a larger impulse. This is known as? the all-or-none principle
Saltatory conduction occurs at the nodes of Ranvier
The speed of nerve impulse conduction is increased by myelination
For a signal to be transmitted by means of a chemical synapse from a presynaptic neuron to a postsynaptic neuron the postsynaptic neuron must contain neurotransmitter receptors
What would happen at the postsynaptic neuron if the total inhibitory effects of the neurotransmitters were greater than the total excitatory effects? No nerve impulse would be generated.
Which of the following would carry sensory nerve impulses? spinothalamic tract
The basal nuclei help regulate muscle tone needed for specific movements.
Carpal tunnel syndrome is due to damage to a nerve in the brachial plexus
Axons of the lower motor neurons leave the CNS through the brain stem and spinal cord
Which of the following statements about the blood supply to the brain is NOT true? The glucose brought to he brain can be stored for future use
After a car accident, Joe exhibits severe dizziness, difficulty in walking, and slurred speech. He may have damaged his cerebellum
Which of the following is NOT a function of cerebrospinal fluid? conduction of nerve impulses
Which part of the brain contains the centers that control the heart rate and breathing rhythm? medulla
The part of the brain that serves as a primary link between the nervous and endocrine system is the hypothalamus
Which of the following is NOT a function of the hypothalamus? coordinates the startle reflex
The part(s) of the brain concerned with memory, reasoning, judgment, and intelligence is(are) the association areas
A broad band of white matter that connects the two cerebral hemispheres is the corpus callosum
The ringing of your alarm clock in the morning wakes you up by stimulating your reticular activating system
Which lobe contains primary visual area that allows interpretation of shape and color occipital lobe
Which lobe receives impulses for smell temporal lobe
Which lobe contains primary motor area that controls muscle movement frontal lobe
Which lobe receives sensory impulses for touch, pain, and temperature parietal lobe
When entering a restaurant, you are bombarded with many different sensory stimuli. The part of the brain that combines all of those sensory inputs so that you can respond appropriately is the common integrative area
Which cranial nerves contain only sensory fibers? optic and olfactory
Which cranial nerve(s) help(s) control swallowing? glossopharyngeal, bagus, hypoglossal
The sympathetic division of the ANS is also called the thoracolumbar division
The output portion of the ANS includes two motor neurons and one ganglion
(T/T) Sympathetic effects are more localized and short-lived than parasympathetic effects. FALSE
Which of the following pairs is mismatched norepinephrine : parasympathetic nervous system
Which of the following statements is NOT true concerning the autonomic nervous system? sensory neurons include pre- and postganglionic neurons
Which part of the central nervous system regulates autonomic tone? hypothalamus
Which of the following activities would NOT be monitored by autonomic sensory neurons? hearing and equilibrium
The autonomic ganglia that are located near the innervated organs are terminal ganglia
(T/F) The parasympathetic division initiates responses in a greganglionic neuron that synapses with 20 or more postganglionic neurons FALSE
Which nerve carries most of the parasympathetic output from the brain? vagus
Which of the following neurons release norepinephrine? sympathetic postganglionic neurons
Which of the following would NOT be affected by the autonomic nervous system? skeletal muscle
Created by: dtgs2010



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