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Ch. 6 skin

Hole's Chapter 6--Integumentary sys

The outer layer of skin is called the epidermis
The epidermis is composed of stratified squamous epithelium
The inner layer of skin is called dermis
The dermis is made up of connective tissues, epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, nervous tissue, and blood
separates the two skin layers basement membrane
The subcutaneous layer is beneath the dermis
The subcutaneous layer is composed of loose connective tissues and adipose
The epidermis lacks blood vessels.
The deepest layer of the epidermis stratum basale
The stratum basale is nourished by blood vessels in the dermis.
Older skin cells are called keratinocytes
keratinocytes and are held together with desmosomes
The accumulation of keratin in epidermal cells which hardens the epidermis Keratinization
The outermost layer of the epidermis the stratum corneum
The epidermis is thickest on palms of the hand and the soles of the feet
Most areas of epidermis have___layers 4 layers
The four layers of epidermis starting with the deepest stratum basale, stratum spinosum, stratum germinativum, and stratum corneum
An additional layer of epidermis in thickened skin stratum lucidum
Melanocytes lie in the stratum basale and in the underlying connective tissues of the dermis
melanocytes transfer melanin granules/ to epidermal cells by a process called cytocrine secretion
the dermis has_________ between the ridges of the epidermis papillae
Fingerprints form from the undulations of the dermis and epidermis
binds the epidermis to the subcutaneous layer The dermis
The dermis is largely composed of \ irregular dense connective tissue that includes tough collagenous fibers and elastic fibers in a gel-like ground substance
The dermis also contains_______that can wrinkle the skin of the scrotum smooth muscles
Some smooth muscle of the is associated with hair follicles
In the face, skeletal muscles are anchored to the dermis
scattered throughout the dermis Nerve cell processes
. Pacinian corpuscles stimulated by heavy pressure
Meissner’s corpuscles stimulated by light touch.
The subcutaneous layer consists of loose connective tissue and adipose tissue
fibers of the dermis are continuous with the fibers of the subcutaneous layer
insulates the body The adipose tissue of the subcutaneous layer
contains major blood vessels that supply the skin. The subcutaneous layer
A hair follicle is a group of epidermal cell at the base of a tubelike depression in the dermis of skin.
A follicle extends from the surface of skin into the dermis
The hair root is the portion of hair embedded in skin.
a projection of connective tissue at the end of the hair follicle. It contains blood vessels The hair papilla
the portion of hair that extends from the surface of skin The hair shaft
A hair is composed of dead keratinocytes
Red hair contains an iron pigment called trichosiderin
a band of smooth muscle and attaches to hair follicles An arrector pili muscle
Goose bumps are produced when arrector pili muscles contract
overlies a surface of skin called the nail bed a nail plate
the whitish, thickened, half-moon shaped region at the base of a nail plate lunula
glands associated with hair follicles Sebaceous glands
Sebaceous glands are _________ glands holocrine
Sebaceous glands produce sebum
Sebum is a mixture of fatty material and cellular debris
Sweat glands are also called sudoriferous glands
Each sweat gland consists of a tiny tube in the dermis or superficial subcutaneous layer
The most numerous sweat glands eccrine
Eccrine glands respond to heat
Eccrine glands are common on the forehead, neck, and back.
the opening of a sweat gland duct. A pore
Sweat contains water, waste and salt
Apocrine glands become active at puberty
appocrine glands react to nervousness or stress
Apocrine glands are most numerous in the axilla, groin, and around the nipples
Ceruminous glands of the external ear canal and secrete cerumen
can disrupt the rates of metabolic reactions shifts in body temp
norm body temp in C 37oC
Heat is a product of cellular metabolism
When body temperature rises above the set point nerve impulses stimulate structures in the skin and other organs to release heat
During physical activity, active muscles muscles release heat, which the blood carries away.
, muscles in the walls of dermal blood vessels relax. When warmed blood reaches the hypothalamus
As dermal blood vessels dilate heat escapes to the outside world
Skin reddens because dermal blood vessels are dilated
The primary means of body heat loss is radiation
the spread of heat from warm areas to cooler areas radiation
the movement of heat into molecules of cooler objects conduction
the continuous circulation of air over a warm surface. convection
the change of a liquid to a gas evaporation
When sweat evaporates it carries heat away from the skin surface
When body temperature falls below the set point muscles of dermal blood vessels constrict which decreases the flow of blood through the skin
When body temperature falls, sweat glands become inactive.
When body temperature continues to fall , small groups of muscles to contract slightly to produce shivering.
a rise in body temperature hyperthermia
If air temperature is high, heat loss by radiation is less effective
a low body temperature. hypothermia
can result from prolonged exposure to cold or an illness. Hypothermia
can lead to mental confusion, lethargy, and loss of consciousness. Hypothermia
are at a higher risk for developing hypothermia. Children and the elderly
Environmental factors such as_______ affect skin color sunlight and X rays
malanocytes produce melanin
When blood is well oxygenated the blood pigment hemoglobin is bright red and the skin of light-complexioned people appears pink.
When blood oxygen concentration is low hemoglobin is dark red and the skin appears bluish.
If dermal blood vessels are dilated more blood enters skin and skin appears pinkish or reddish.
If dermal blood vessels are constricted less blood enters skin and skin appears pale
During inflammation blood vessels dilate and become more permeable.
The dilated blood vessels provide the tissues with more nutrients, which aids healing
If a break in the skin is shallow epithelial cells are stimulated to divide more rapidly than normal.
If a cut extends into the dermis or subcutaneous layer , blood vessels break and the escaping blood forms a clot.
A clot consists mainly of fibrin, plasma, blood cells, and platelets
A scab is a blood clot and dried fluids
_____migrate into the injured area and begin forming new fibers that bind the edges of the wound together fibroblasts
Connective tissue matrix secretes _______ that stimulate certain cells to divide and regenerate damaged tissues growth factors
As healing continues, blood vessels extend into the area beneath the scab
remove dead cells and other debris Phagocytic cells
A granulation consists of a branch of a blood vessel, and a cluster of collagen-secreting fibroblasts
A first degree burn is one that only effects the epidermis
a second degree burn is one that that affects a part of the dermis and epidermis.
The healing of second degree burns depends on accessory organs of the skin that survive the burn.
A third degree burn is one that affects the entire thickness of skin
In a third degree burn, the skin becomes dry and leathery
a graft from the same person autograft
a graft from a cadaver homograft
Skin substitutes include include amniotic membranes, membranes of silicon, polyurethane or nylon
The rule of 9s divides the skin’s surface into 11 areas of 9% each
Aging skin affects appearance, temperature regulation and vitamin D production.
patches of pigments age or liver spots
The dermis becomes reduced as synthesis of of the connective tissue proteins collagen and elastin slows.
Wrinkling and sagging skin result from from the shrinking of the dermis and loss of fat from the subcutaneous layer
Skin becomes drier because sebaceous glands produce less oil.
Slowed melanin production causes gray or white hair.
Nail growth is impaired because the blood supply to the nails is diminished.
Sensitivity to________diminishes with age pain and pressure
An older person is less able to tolerate heat because the sweat glands and hair follicle shrink, and the number of dermal blood vessels decrease
Vitamin D is necessary for calcium absorption
Created by: csims1