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Chapter 2

Part 2 of Chapter 2

TermDefinition
steroids large lipid molecules composed of 4 connected rings of carbon atoms (ex: cholesterol)
cholesterol best-known steroid
phospholipids consists of a glycerol & 2 fatty acids linked to a nonpolar group (ex: lechithin)
fatty acids lauric acid
fats monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides
proteins most abundant organic component of the human body
support structural proteins create a three-dimensional framework for the body, providing strength, organization, and support for cells, tissues, and organs
movement contractile proteins are responsible for muscular contraction; related proteins are responsible for the movement of individual cells
transport insoluble lipids, respiratory gases, minerals such as iron, and several hormones are carried in the blood attached to transport proteins; other specialized proteins transport minerals between different parts of a cell
buffering proteins provide a buffering action, helping to prevent potentially dangerous changes in pH in cells and tissues
metabolic regulation enzymes speed up chemical reactions in living cells; the sensitivity of enzymes to environmental factors is extremely important in controlling the pace ad direction of metabolic operations
coordination & control protein hormones can influence the metabolic activities of every cell in the body or affect the function of specific organs or organ systems
defense the tough, waterproof proteins of the skin, hair, and nails protect the body from environmental hazards; proteins known as antibodies protect us from disease, and special clotting proteins restrict bleeding following an injury to the cardiovascular system
enzyme function The reactants in an enzymatic reaction (substrates) interact to form a specific product. Before an enzyme can function as a catalyst, the substrates must bind to a special region of the enzyme (active site).
nucleic acids large organic molecules composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorus; store & process information at the molecular level inside cells (ex: DNA & RNA)
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) determines our inherited characteristics (eye color, hair color, blood type); builds proteins; controls the shape & physical characteristics of our bodies (adenine, guanine, cytosine, & thymine)
ribonucleic acid (RNA) cooperate to manufacture specific proteins using information provided by DNA (adenine, guanine, cytosine, & uracil)
Created by: JTBanks