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week 1

Biomechanics & Joints

Anatomical Position Head, Eyes, Toes directed forward -palms forward
Anatomical Planes 1. median 2. Sagittal 3.Frontal 4.Horizontal
Median Plane vertical plane passing through midline of body, separating into right and left halves
Sagittal "midsagittal" vertical plane passing parallel to median plane
Frontal "Coronal" vertical plane passing perpendicular to median plane, diving the body into front and back halves.
Horizontal "transverse" plane passing at a right angle to the median, dividing body into the upper and lower halves
Superior "cranial" towards head
Inferior "caudal" lower part of the body
Anterior "ventral" front
Posterior "dorsal" back
Medial closer to the medial plane
Lateral further away from the median plane
Proximal above/superior
Distal below/inferior
Superficial closer to the body's surface
Deep deeper in the body
Dorsum top of the foot
Palm of hand
Sole bottom of the foot
Flexion decreases the angle between two parts i.e. bending elbow towards bicep
Extension increasing the angle i.e. straightening the fingers
Hyperextension extending the joint beyond its normal range of motion i.e. neck in car accident
Abduction pull away from the midline of the body i.e. radial deviation
Adduction pulls toward the body i.e.ulnar deviation
Elevation movement in a superior direction i.e. elevation of the scapula (shoulder shrug)
Depression movement in an inferior direction i.e. depression of the mandible (jaw dropping)
Pronation turns the palm down
Supination turns palm up
Dorsiflexion flexion of the entire foot superiorly i.e. letting off the gas peddle
Plantar flexion extension of the foot inferiorly i.e. pressing on the brake
Eversion "turn out" movement of sole away from the median plane
Inversion "turn in" movement of the sole towards the median plane
Protrusion anterior movement of an object
Retrusion posterior movement of an object
Protraction anterior movement of the arms at the shoulders
Retraction posterior movement of the arms at the shoulders
Rotation when a part turns on its axis along the transverse plane, i.e. atlas on axis
Circumduction combination of flexion, extension, adduction and abduction...circular movement i.e. shoulder and hip joint movement
Anterograde motion in normal direction of flow i.e. digestion
Retrograde motion in reversed flow i.e. gastric reflux
Opposition -grasping the fingers with the thumb -happens only at the carpometacarpal joint
Reposition to release and object by spreading the fingers and thumb i.e. returning to anatomical position
Joints serve for... 1. Mobility (free range of motion) 2. Stability (keep skeleton together)
Joints can be classified... 1.Structurally (make up the joint) i.e. fibrous, cartilaginous 2. Functionally (movement amount & stability)
Functional Joints 1. Synarthrosis 2. Amphiarthrosis 3. Diarthrosis
Synarthrosis joint that allow little or no movement
Amphiarthrosis allows some movement
Diarthrosis freely moveable joints -synovial joints
Fibrous Joints bones joined by fibrous tissue
3 types of Fibrous Joints 1. Sutures 2. Gomphoses 3. Syndesmoses
Sutures interdigitating bone connected together with connective tissue -synostoses i.e. skull
Gomphoses "Dentaloalveolar joint" articulation between tooth and body socket
Syndesmoses joints in which bones are connected by ligament or interosseous membrane
Cartilaginous Joints 1. Synchondroses 2. Symphyses
Synchondroses bar/plate of hyaline cartilage uniting two bones i.e. growth plate/epiphyseal plate
Symphyses surfaces of bone are fused to an intervening pad of fibrocartilage i.e. intervertebral disc
Synovial Joint articulating bones are separated by fluid containing joint cavity i.e. most joints of the limbs
Bursae fluid-filled sacs lined with synovial membrane -allows muscles to glide past each other
Tendon Sheaths allow tendons to glide past one another or other structures
Synovial Joint Types 1. Plane Joints 2. Hinge Joints 3.Pivot Joints 4. Condyloid 5. Sellar 6. Sheroidal
Plane Joints articular surface is flat i.e. carpals & vertebral articular processes
Uniaxial Joints occur around one axis
Hinge Joints uniaxial joint/ ginglymus -allows flexion and extension i.e. elbow
Pivot Joint "trochoid" -movement is a uniaxial rotation of a bone around its long axis i.e. C1/C2
Condyloid "ellipsoid" -oval surface of one bone protrudes into corresponding depression of another bone, like egg and spoon i.e. metacarpolphalangeal joints (knuckles) & radiocarpal
Sellar "saddle joints" -resembles condyloid but allows greater degree of movement i.e. carpometacarpal joint of the thumb
Sheroidal ball and socket joints -multiaxial/polyaxial, freely movable i.e. shoulder and hip joint
Knee joint is made up of 3 joints: Patellofemoral Medial Tibiofemoral Lateral Tibiofemoral
Tibiofemoral Joint hinge joint permitting extension and flexion
Patellofemoral Joint plane joint, with only a half capsule on the posterior aspect
Extracapsular Ligament Fibular Collateral Tibia Collateral
Fibular Collateral lateral collateral ligament -runs from lateral epicondyle of femur to fibular head
Tibial Collateral medial collateral ligament -runs from medial epicondyle of femur to medial condyle of tibial shaft
Why can both the medial maniscus and medial collateral ligament both tear? Because they both touch
Anterior Cruciate Ligament attaches from posterior portion of the interchondylar notch to the anterior interchondylar area of the tibia
Posterior Cruciate Ligament attaches to the anterior portion of the intercondylar notch to the posterior intercondylar area of the tibia.
ACL prevents... anterior displacement of the femur on tibia -full extension fall
PCL prevents... prevents posterior displacement of femur on tibia -full flexion fall
Menisci two small fatty pads that exist between the femur and tibia
3 C's of knee injuries 1. collateral ligaments 2. cruciate ligament 3. cartilages (menisci)
Terrible Triad of Donoghe medial collateral ligament medial meniscus anterior cruciate ligament
Created by: swalters4



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