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Axial skeleton II


hyoid bone located above larnyx in throar; serves as point of attachment for many tongue and neck muscles; horseshoe shapes with 2 horns or cornua. does not articulate with any other bone
sinus (mucous-lined air cavities) contained in maxillary, sphenoid, ethmoid and frontal; maxillary is largest in skull
paranasal sinuses serve as resonance chambers for speech and lighten facial bones
sinusitis inflammation of sinuses
vertebral column extending from skull to pelvis forming body's major axial support; protects delicate spinal cord while allowing spinal nerves to isssue from cord via openings between adjacent vertebrae.
vertebrar 24 single bones and 2 fused bones (sacrum and coccyx) (flexibility, curved structure) make up vertebral column
cervicAl vertebrae 7 bones of neck that are part of VC
thoracic vertebrae 12 bones
lumbar vertebrae 5 bones supporting lower back
intervertebral discs pads of fibrocartilage that seperate vertebrae that cushion the vertebrae and absorb shocks
nucleus pulposus region of ID; a central gelatinous that behaves like fluid
annulus fibrous part of ID; outer ring of encircling collagen fibersthat stabilize the disc and contains pulposus
ruptured disc degenerative changes weaking of ligaments and tendons of vertebral column (older people suffer from it)
primary curvatures thoracic and sacral curvatures of spine present and well developed at birth
secondary curvatures later developments; ex. cervical curvature becomes prominent when baby hold head up independently, lumbar curvature when baby walks
centrum (body) rounded central portion of vertebra which faces anteriorly in human vertebral columbn
vertebral arch composed of pedicle, laminae and a spinous process, it represent the junction of all posterior extensions from vertebral column
vertebral (spinal) foramen opening enclosed by body and vertebral arch; a conduit for spinal cord
transverse process two lateral projections from vertebral arch
spinous process single medial and posterior projection from vertebral arch
superior and inferior articular process paired projections lateral to vertebral foramen that enable articulation with adjacent vertebrae; superior faces posteriorly and inferior faces anteriorly
intervertebral foramina right and left pedicles have notches on inferior and superior surfaces that create openings, "IE, for spinal nerves to leave spinal cord between adjacent vertebrae
sacrum composite bone formed from fusion of 5 vertebrae
median sacral crest remnant of spinous processes of fused vertebra
alae formed by fusion of tranverse processes
sacral foramina allow blood vessles and nerves to pass
sacral hiatus enlarged opening
coccyx formed from fusion of 3-5 small irregularly shaped vertebrae; tailbone attached to sacrum by ligaments
thoracic cage forms cone shaped elcosure around organs of thoracic cavity (heart lungs) for protection
sternum (Breastbone) typical flat bone as a result of fusion of three bones (manubrium, body, xiphoid process); attached to first 7 pair of ribs
manubrium looks like knot of tie that articulates with clavicle (collarbone) laterally
body (gladiolus) forms bulk of sternum
xiphoid process constructs inferior end of sternum and lies at level of 5th intercostal space
jugular notch concave upper border of manubrium
sternal angle result of manubrium and body meeting at a slight angle to each other so that transverse ridge is formed at level of second ribs
xiphisternal joint point where sternal body xiphoid process fuse
ribs 12 pairs that form walls of thoracic cage
Created by: sugar9booger