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Chapters 1 & 2

Review of chapters 1 and 2

TermDefinition
responsiveness organisms respond to changes in their immediate environment
growth organisms increase in size through the growth of cells, the simplest units of life
reproduction organisms reproduce, creating new generations of similar organisms
movement organisms are capable of producing movement, which may be internal or external
metabolism organisms rely on complex chemical reactions to provide the energy required for responsiveness, growth, reproduction, & movement
human physiology the study of the functions of the human body
cell physiology the study of the functions of living cells
special physiology the study of the physiology of specific organs
systemic physiology considers all aspects of the function of specific organ systems
elements all matter composed of substances
atoms smallest, stable unit of matter
protons positive electrical charge
neutrons neutral; uncharged
electrons negative electrical charge
isotopes elements can differ in terms of the number of neutrons in the nucleus
mass number total number of protons & neutrons in the nucleus
cation atom that loses more electrons than it has protons; positively charged
anion atom that gains more electrons than it has protons; negatively charged
covalent bond sharing electrons with other atoms
catalysts accelerate chemical reactions without themselves being permanently charged
nutrients essential elements & molecules obtained from the diet
metabolites all the molecules synthesized or broken down by chemical reactions inside our bodies
inorganic compound small; without carbon & hydrogen
organic compound large & complex; with carbon & hydrogen
Properties of Water (1)essential reactant in the chemical reactions of living systems; (2) very high heat capacity; (3) excellent solvent
normal pH 7.35 - 7.45
monosaccharides a carbohydrate that has 3 to 7 carbons (ex: glucose)
disaccharides formed by two monosaccharides joined together (ex: sucrose)
polysaccharides formed by many monosaccharides (ex: glycogen)
saturated four single covalent bonds of each carbon atom
unsaturated double covalent bonds; carbon-to-carbon
fatty acids long chains of carbon atoms with attached hydrogen atoms that end in -COOH, which doesn't dissolve in water
lipids contains carbon, hydrogen & oxygen with a ratio of 1:2:1 (ex: fats, oils, waxes)
buffer stabilizes pH by either removing or replacing hydrogen ions
salt an ionic compound consisting of any cation except a hydrogen ion & any anion except a hydroxide ion
Created by: JTBanks