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CNS3

Brainstem/Cerebellum

QuestionAnswer
What are cerebral peduncles? Motor fibres (cortico-spinal motor tracts) descending to the spinal cord through the brainstem.
Where are cerebral peduncles located? Midbrain
What is the pons? White matter tract
Where is the pons? Below the midbrain, directly in front of the cerebellum.
What is the function of the pons? Relays information from cortex to cerebellum.
What are the pyramidal tracts of the medulla? Cortico-Spinal Motor Tracts from the midbrain
What is decussation? Crossing over of the cerebral peduncles so that the left brain controls the right side of the body and the right brain controls the left side.
How do the cerebral peduncles travel past the pons? Underneath of it
What are the 3 structures of the brainstem? Midbrain, Pons, Medulla
What is the function of the midbrain?
What is the function of the medulla?
Where are the colliculi located? Midbrain
What is the distinction between the colliculi? Superior and inferior
What are the superior colliculi responsible for? Visual reflex relay
What are the inferior colliculi responsible for? Auditory reflex relay
What do the colliculi relay to? Cerebellum, this is how it knows where things are in space.
What are cerebellar peduncles? Connections that connect the cerebellum to the back of the brainstem.
How many cerebellar peduncles are there? 3
What does the superior cerebellar peduncle relay to the cerebellum? Vision
What does the middle cerebellar peduncle relay to the cerebellum? Cortico info from the pons about what you planned to move.
What does the inferior cerebellar peduncle relay to the cerebellum? Proprioceptive info (the position of your muscles and joints)
What are the three cerebellar peduncles? Superior, middle, inferior.
What is the organization of the spinal cord regarding motor and sensory info? Motor in the front, sensory in the back.
What doe the brainstem contain regarding cranial nerves? The nuclei (grey matter) for the cranial nerves 3-12.
How many cranial nerves are there? 12
What is cranial nerve I? Is it sensory, motor, or both? Olfactory, sensory
What is cranial nerve II? Is it sensory, motor, or both? Optic, sensory
What is cranial nerve III? Is it sensory, motor, or both? Occulomotor, motor
What is cranial nerve IV? Is it sensory, motor, or both? Trochlear, motor
What is cranial nerve V? Is it sensory, motor, or both? Trigeminal, both
What is cranial nerve VI? Is it sensory, motor, or both? Abducens, motor
What is cranial nerve VII? Is it sensory, motor, or both? Facial, both
What is cranial nerve VIII? Is it sensory, motor, or both? Vestibulocochlear, sensory
What is cranial nerve IX? Is it sensory, motor, or both? Glossopharyngeal, both
What is cranial nerve X? Is it sensory, motor, or both? Vagus, both
What is cranial nerve XI? Is it sensory, motor, or both? Accessory, motor
What is cranial nerve XII? Is it sensory, motor, or both? Hypoglossal, motor
What is the reticular formation? Core of the brainstem
What is the function of the reticular formation? Signals to cortex to keep us alert
What is the substantia nigra? A structure in the midbrain that releases dopamine, functions alongside the basal ganglia.
How does Parkinson's disease effect the substantia nigra? Parkinson's is the death of dopaminergic neurons which stops the flow of dopamine to the basal ganglia.
How does the reticular formation work? It receives sensory input which causes an excitatory impulse that is sent from the reticular formation to the cortex in order to grab your attention.
Where does the input for the reticular formation come from? Vision and ascending general sensory tracts.
What neurotransmitter is used to send the message from the reticular formation? Acetylcholine
What are endogenous opiods? Endorphins and enkephalins.
What do opiods do in the body? Pain killer
Where are endogenous opiods released from? From the reticular formation down to the rest of the body.
What three inputs does the cerebellum receive? Proprio, visual, vestibulo
What is vestibulo input? Balance
What side of the body does the left cerebellum have information for? Left side of the body.
What is the pathway of motor planning through the cerebellum? Frontal Lobe(I'd like to make an action) - Pons - Cerebellum - Cerebral Cortex
What must the info from the frontal lobe do before it reaches the cerebellum? Synapse at the Pons and cross over to the other side.
Why must information from the cerebral cortex synapse at the pons? Because the cerebellum has ipsilateral control whereas the cerebral cortex has contralateral control.
What happens with the information once it leaves the cerebellum during motor planning? Travels to the side of the brain that requested the information to initiate a movement.
What happens in the cerebellum during motor planning? The cerebellum brings all the input it receives together to calculate the best way to coordinate movement.
Where does the "blueprint" for the requested motion get sent from? Deep nuclei within the cerebellum
What is the organization of the cerebellum in regards to the axial skeleton and the appendicular skeleton? The outside of the cerebellum is responsible for moving your appendicular skeleton. The inside of the cerebellum is responsible for movement of the muscles of the spine and abdomen.
What are the two parts to the appendicular section of the brain? Spinocerebellum and cerebrocerebellum.
What is the function of the spinocerebellum? Responsible for making planned motions with respect to the limbs.
What does the spinocerebellum receive info from? The spinal cord
What is the function of the cerebrocerebellum? Where you learn new movements.
What does the cerebrocerebellum have a lot of connections with? The cerebral cortex
What is the inside portion of the cerebellum called? Vestibulocerebellum.
What is the function of the vestibulocerebellum? Allows you to maintain balance or an even posture.
What kind of input does the appendicular area of the cerebellum receive? Vision, vestibulo, and proprioceptive
What kind of input does the axial area of the cerebellum receive? Mostly proprioceptive.
What is ataxia? Cerebellar dysfunction particularly through the medial cerebellum.
What does a person with ataxia look like when they walk? They look like they are intoxicated.
What can cause ataxia? A stroke involving the medial cerebellum or chronic exposure to organic solvents.
What are intention tremors? Cerebellar dysfunction through the lateral cerebellum.
Created by: clem773