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Educational advances/military successes/failures

form of writing developed by Alcuin; developed in the interest of simplifying manuscript copying; smaller, simplified lettering miniscule
After the division of Charlemagne's empire, it grew weak. This Saxon king was crowned 'Holy Roman Emperor' Otto I
Charles Martel led a Frankish victory in this battle which halted the Muslim advance in Europe Battle of Tours
Most of Charlemagne's empire was in this European country France
Using a specific example, evaluate the effectiveness of Charlemagne's efforts to improve education His efforts were well spent; his empire became renowned for its advances in education
Describe two qualities that made Charlemagne a unique and powerful ruler 1) He had a passion for learning that translated into dedicated efforts to improve education in his kingdom 2) His athletic interests (hunting, swimming, swordsmanship) made him a great warrior and leader
Briefly describe the manner in which Charlemagne brought an end to Saxon resistance. He had limited success until he decided that their conversion to Christianity would yield positive results. In spite of Alcuin's objections, he converted them by the sword.
Explain what prompted Charlemagne to organize the palace school at Aachen. Charlemagne was passionate about education. He recognized that scholarship amongst members of his court and the church had declined sharply. The Bishop of Tours couldn't read or speak Latin properly. Priests were unable to read or understand scripture.
What did Charlemagne take for his model in conceiving the Palace School at Aachen? The York Cathedral School
Where would one have to go to visit Aachen today? Northwestern Germany, near the boarder of Belgium.
Identify the steps Charlemagne took to ensure that the Palace School at Aachen would be the greatest in Europe. He enlisted the help of Alcuin of York. Alcuin brought his enthusiasm for teaching and his wealth of knowledge. He oversaw the translation of important texts. Charlemagne invited the greatest scholars from Europe (Spain, Italy, England) to teach.
Identify three important contributions Alcuin made to academia. 1) introduced miniscule writing 2) instilled interest in his students through his dynamic and enthusiastic teaching style 3) saved important texts from disappearing by insisting that copies be made...
Explain why Latin was so important in academic institutions of the middle ages Latin was the universal language of the educated. Charlemagne could employ scholars from all over Europe because he had the assurance that all of the could communicate in Latin
Explain how Charlemagne gained the title, "Defender of the Holy Church" While Rome was under seige by the Lombards, Charlemagne attacked and defeated the Lombard Kingdom.
What were the names of the three sons of Louis whose stubborness led to the division of Charlemagne's once great empire? Louis, Lothar and Charles the Bald
Describe the relevance of the Treaty of Verdun This treaty brought an end to the civil war that errupted between Louis' children. It led to the division of the empire between the three brothers.
Describe the circumstances that led to the decline of Charlemagne's empire Now divided, the three kingdoms were less capable of defending their lands. Magyars (Hungary), Vikings, and Muslims attacked from all sides.
Date of the Battle of Tours 732
Date of the Treaty at Verdun 843
Date Charlemagne was crowned 'Emperor of the Romans' Dec 25, 800
Date on which Alcuin of York left this life 804
A Popular tourist attraction and the most famous landmark in France Eiffel Tower
The name for the large confederation of European countries all with a common currency The European Union
A style of painting made famous largely by French painters in which light and color are exaggerated when painting a particular subject Impressionism
Identify two impressionist painters Claude Monet, August Renoir, Eduard Manet, Edgar Degas, Paul Cezanne, William Merritt Chase
After a prolonged and bloody revolution the French people finally gained their first Republic. The Republic was short-lived when this individual rose to power with the full approval of the French people: Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte
A large area of fertile soil in France that makes agricultural products some of France's chief exports: Northern European Plain
One of the World's most famous museums; during the time of Napoleon it was a veritable storehouse of precious plunder collected from the war ravaged countries Napoleon defeated The Louvre
The most famous river in France; runs through France's capital city The Seine
During WWI most of the fighting took place here: France
What became of France during WWII? The Germans launched an aggressive invasion and the French surrenedered.The northern part of France was governed by the "Militärverwaltung in Frankreich" (the Military Administration in France).In the south:a French governor under the authority of Nazis