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AP EURO Ch 13

European State Consolidation in 17 and 18th c

QuestionAnswer
What 5 states came to dominate european politics Great Britain, France, Austria, Prussia, Russia
What 7 european powers were on the decline Spain, portugal, netherlands, poland, sweden, ottoman empire
how did the united provinces of netherlands become a nation after successfully revolting against spain in 1572
what happened in 1672 french armies of Louis XIV invaded netherlands
who is prince william III of orange stadtholder (hereditary chief) of the most important province Holland
How did the Netherlands differ from the rest of europe other nations had monarchies, netherlands was a republic where states had power
Describe the netherlands religious policies very tolerant, composed of many different religions
What 4 factors was Dutch economic achievement built upon? Urban life, Farming Trade (fishing, textiles, shipping), Overseas Empire (gained control through spice trade in Asia)
What was the dutch east india company monopolized spice trade in East Asia
What is a stadtholder hereditary ruler of a dutch province
why did netherlands decline? lost central authority and became disunited
2 models of government in england; france parliamentary monarchy; absolutism
why did these models of government arise? cost of warfare was high and only these types of governments succeeded in raising enough money
who was James I? describe political policies and religious policies ruled after elizabeth, from scotland, wanted anglicanisms so faces problems with puritans and was anti-parliament
what was Charlies I view on parliament? what did he want for religion anti, religious conformity
who did charles I engage in war with? did he win Scotland; was defeated
what was the petition of right parliament has to approve taxes, no unfair imprisonment, no quartering of troops in private homes
why did the english civil war start parliament wouldnt give funds to charles's war in scotland, so he built his own army and parliament built their own army
2 factors that allowed parliament to win the civil war alliance with scotland + leadership of oliver cromwell
what did englands gov become under oliver cromwell strict puritan republic
what happened int charles II's Restoration in england restored monarch authority over parliament, anglicanism
what was the treaty of dover england and france ally against dutch and charles secretly said he would become catholic (to please french)
WHAT were the parliament/ religious policies of james II? anti parliament, catholic
what was the glorious revolution william of orange came to england and took over without a fight, james II fled
what was the result of the glorius revolution protestants had more rights, power taken away from monarchy and given to people in bill of rights
what happened to england under walpole? flourished economically, religious toleration, nobles were happy, parliament had balanced power, no large standing army
who were louis XIV's chief ministers cardinal riechelieu and mazarin
what did the fronde teach louis XIV? he needed to not have heavy handed policies but control by working with nobles
what were parlaments judicial bodies that king consulted with to show he supported nobles
what image did louis's palace at versailles give him strong, wealthy, absolute
who was bossuet? louis's tutor who defended divine right of kings
what was jansenism? anti jesuit, anti monarch, st augustines teaching that original sin condemned human kind, only grace of god could help
what was the revocation of the edict of nantes louis took away protestant rights to unify france relgiously, didnt work bc protestants just left france
what were louis's early wars goals? stop habsburgs and secure international borders
what was the war of devolution? against spanish netherlands, got land in treaty of nijmwegen
what was the league of augsburg alliance of england, spain, sweden, netherlands against france in 9 years war
what was the war of spanish succession war over lands of habsburg empire where france fought everyone else and lost bc poor finance/weapons
What did the treaty of utrecht do? france made peace with england and netherlands, got to keep philip V as kind of spain, england got mediterranean power,
what was the mississipi bubble john law (financial advisor to king) had bad policies which led to inflation and missiissip bubble burst and french economy went down
who basically ruled after louis XIV died Duke of orleans, the regent
what did duke of orleans do with parlements renewed their authority
who was who in eastern europe dynasties Habsburgs-austria, Hohenzollerns-prussia, romanov-russia
what did poland fail to do? establish central government
what did habsburgs do well establish territories all over europe + cooperating with nobles
what problem did habsburgs have? couldnt unify because so many different cultures
what did charles VI pragmatic sanction do established single line of inheritance for his daughter to rule the habsburg empire (bc was scared others would take power)
who was the great elector frederick william who united prussian gov, gave it an army
who were the junkers german noble landlords who obeyed hohenzollerns in exchange for power over serfs
what were the russian boyars nobility who controlled gov before peter the great, peter tried to westernize them
what did peter's youth teach him boyars/streltsy must be controlled and russian military power must increase
what was the great northern war russian war against sweden to gain control in baltic, won
what was st petersburg peter's version of versailles; showed his power + westernization
what were the colleges that peter made instititutions that made laws all under his approval
what was the table of ranks equated boyars social rank with gov rank to make them serve the gov
what were millets units that ottoman sultans ruled through
what were jannisaries? unit of elite chirstian boy troops raised as muslims
what were the ulama islamic scholars who had political authority, very traditional
what 2 battles did the ottomans lose battle of lepanto and siege of vienna
why did the ottoman empire decline? lots of disunity and rivalry in gov, lost battles, became less advanced than other european nations due to isolation
what did charles II declaration of indulgences do suspended all laws against catholics and protestants
Created by: mhaq.16