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Chapter 9,10,11

Columns organization of white matter in the spinal cord
Arachnoid Villi absorb cerebrospinal fluid
Cauda Equina extension of nerves beyond the end of the spinal cord
Gyri folds of the cerebral cortex
Posterior (dorsal) root contains the sensory axons of a spinal nerve
Anterior (ventral) root contains the motor axons of a spinal nerve
Longitudinal fissure seperates the cerebrum into right and left halfs
Anterior median fissure divides spinal cord into right and left sides
Ventricles brain cavities where CSF circulates
Sulci shallow grooves in the cerebrum
Central canal contains CSF in the spinal cord
Nerve the portion of a neuron containing the nucleus
Synaptic End Bulb rounded structure at the distal end of an axon terminal
Dendrite highly branched, input part of a neuron
Synaptic Vesicle sac in which neurotransmitter is stored
Interneuron neuron located entirely within the CNS
Axon long, cylindrical process that conducts impulses toward another neuron
Schwann Cells produces myelin sheath in PNS
Node of Ranvier unmyelinated gap in the myelin sheath
Myelin Sheath substance that increases the speed of nerve impulse conduction
Sensory Neuron neuron that conveys information from a receptor to the CNS
Motor Neuron neuron that conveys information from the CNS to an effector
Nerve bundle of many axons in the PNS
Tract bundle of many axons in the CNS
Ganglion group of cell bodies in the PNS
Nucleus group of cell bodies in the CNS
Neurotransmitter substance used for communication at chemical synapses
Postganglionic neuron cell body located in ganglion; unmyelinated axon extends to effector
Preganglionic Neuron cell body lies inside the CNS; myelinated axon extends to ganglion
Prevertebral ganglia their postganglionic axons innervate organs below the diaphragm
Sympathetic Trunk their postganglionic axons supply organs above the diaphragm
Terminal ganglia contain the cell bodies and dendrites of parasymapthetic postganglionic neurons
GABA Inhibitory amino acids in the CNS
Nitric Oxide A gaseous neurotransmitter that is not packaged into synaptic vesicles
Glutamate excitatory amino acid in the CNS
Endorphines body’s natural painkillers
Serotonin helps regulate mood and sleep
Acetylcholine neurotransmitter that activates skeletal muscle fibers
Brain neurons enclosed within skull
spinal cord connects to brain and enclosed within spinal cavity
nerves bundles of many axons of neurons
ganglia groups of neuron cell bodies located outside of brain and spinal cord
enteric plexuses networks in digestive tract
sensory receptors monitor changes in internal or external enviornments
sensory receptors and sensory nerves carry info into brain and spinal cord
integration info processing; analyzing and storing info to help lead appropriate responses
perception awareness of sensory input
motor activity efferent nerves; signals to muscles and glands (effectors)
Central Nervous System (CNS) brain and spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) all nervous system structures outside of the CNS
Neurons can respond to stimuli and convert stimuli to electrical signals (nerve impulses) that travel along neurons
neuroglia cells support, nourish, and protect neurons
Neuroglia is critical for homeostasis of interstitial fluid around neurons
cell body nucleus, cytoplasm with typical organelles
dendrites highly branched structures that carry impulses to the cell body
axon conducts away from cell body toward another neuron, muscle or glans (emerges at cone-shaped axon hillock)
Axon terminals contain synaptic vesicles that can release neurotransmitters
multipolar have several or many dendrites and one axon; most common type in brain and spinal cord
bipolar have 1 dendrite and 1 axon; example in retina or eye and inner ear
unipolar have fused dendrite and axon; sensory neurons of spinal nerves
sensory(afferent) convey impulses into brain or spinal cord
motor (efferent) convey impulses from brain or spinal cord out through the peripheral nervous system to effectors (muscles or glands)
Interneurons (association neurons) most are within the central nervous system; transmit impulses between neurons, such as between sensory and motor neurons
Neuroglia cells smaller but much more numerous than neurons; can multiply and divide and fill in brain areas
Gilomas brain tumors derive from neuroglia
Neuroglia functions don't conduct nerve impluses, do support, nourish, and protect neurons
Astrocytes help form blood brain barrier
oligodendrocytes produce myelin in CNS
microglia protect CNS cells from diesease
ependymal cells line ventricles of brain; form cerebrospinal fluid an circulate
schwann produce myelin around PNS neurons; help to regenerate PNS axons
satellite cells support neurons in PNA ganglia
Myelination axons covered with a myelin sheath; many layers of lipid and protein: insulates neurons; increases speed of nerve conduction; appears white (in white matter)
Nodes of Ranvier gaps in the myelin; are important for rapid signal conduction
Diseases that destroy myelin multiple sclerosis, Tay-Sachs
white matter primarily myelinated axons
gray matter cell bodies, dendrites, unmyelinated axons, axon terminals, neuroglia
Location of gray matter brain
Location of white matter spinal cord
Regeneration of PNS neurons axons and dendrites in the PNS can be repaired if cell body is intact and schwann cells functional. these form a regeneration tube and grows axons or dendrites if scar tissue does not fill the tube
regeneration of CNS neurons very limited even if cell body is intact; inhibited by neuroglia and by lack of fetal growth stimulators
CNS structures brain, spinal cord
PNS structures cranial nerves and branches, spinal nerves and branches, ganglia, sensory receptors
Somatic (SNS) sensory neurons from head, body wall, limbs, special sense organs; motor neurons to skeletal muscle:voluntary
Autonomic (ANS) sensory neurons from viscera; motor neurons to viscera (cardiac muscles, smooth muscle, glands): involuntary
sympathetic fight or flight
parasympathetic rest and digest
Enteric (ENS) brain of the gut; sensory neurons monitor chemical changes ans stretching of GI wall, motor neurons regulate contractions, secretions and endocrine secretions (involuntary)
Action potentials nerve impulses
Action potential requires a membrane potential, ion channels
Membrane potential a charge difference across cell membrane (polarization)
Ion channels allow ions to move by diffusion from high to low concentration
leakage channels allow ions to leak through membrane there are more K+ than for Na+
gated channels open and close on command, respond to changes in membrane so can generate and conduct action potentials
Resting membrane potential typically -70mV; inside of membrane more negative than outside; caused by presence of ions
Resting membrane potential Inside (more negative because cytosol has)-many ions (too large to leak out) : amino acids (in cellular proteins) and phosphates (as in ATP); K+ that easily leaks out through many K+ channels
Resting membrane potential outside more positive because interstitial fluid has; few negative ions, Na+ that does not leak out of cell: few Na+ channels, membrane "pumps" that quickly pump out Na+ that does leak (diffuse) into cell
Action potential series of events that activate cell membrane in neurons or muscle fiber
Action potential initial event (stimulus) is required triggers resting membrane to become more permeable to Na+, causes enough Na+ to enter cell so that cell membrane reaches threshold, if so the following events occur: action potential which spreads along neuron or muscle fiber
depolarizing phase na+ channels open -> as more Na+ enters cell, membrane potential rises and becomes positive (-70->0->+30MV)
repolarizing phase K+ channels open -> as more K+ leave cell, membrane potential is returned to resting value (+30->0->-70mv)
usually depolarization and repolarization take how long? 1 millisecond
Action potential recovery levels of ions back to normal by action of Na+/K+ pump; refractory period (brief) even with adequate stimulus, cell cannot be activated
all or none principal if a stimulus is strong enough to cause depolarization to threshold level, the impulse will travel the entire length of the neuron at a constant and maximum strength
nerve impulse conduction (propagation) each section triggers the next locally as even more Na_ channels are opened (like row of dominos_)
continuous conduction in unmyelinated fibers; slower form of conduction
saltatory conduction in myelinated fibers; faster as impulses "leap" between nodes of ranvier
factors that increase rate of conduction myelin, large diameter and warm nerve fibers
neurotransmitters acetylcholine:common in PNS; amino acids; modified amino acids; neuropeptides such as endorphins; nitric oxide
endocrine system hormone is a molecule released in one part of the body but regulates activity of cells in other parts; has a slower response than nervous system but effects last longer and are broader in influence
endocrine ductless, diffuse into blood
hormones long distance chemical signals that travel in the blood or lymph
endocrine glands include pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal and pinael glands
not exclusively endocrine hypothalamus, thymus, pancreas, ovaries, testes, kidneys, stomach, liver, small intestine, skin, heart, adipose tissue, and placenta
hormone activity hormones affect only specific target tissues with specific receptors
hormones in the blood controlled by a feedback system; hormones are synthesized and released in response to stimuli
Hypothalamus is a major link between nervous and endocrine system
pituitary attached to hypothalamus anterior, and posterior
anterior pituitary releasing and inhibiting hormones from the hypothalamus control the release of hormones
anterior pituitary hormones that act on other endocrine systems is called tropic hormones
Human growth hormone (hGH) or somatostatin promote growth
hypersycretion in children and adults children- gigantism acults- acromegaly
Hyposecretion in children pituitary dwarfism
thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) or thyrotropin stimulates synthesis and secretion of thyroid hormones by thyroid
follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) FSH stimulates gamete (egg or sperm) production
Luteinzing hormone (LH) stimulates ovulation, promotes production of gonadal hormones
prolactin (PRL) promotes milk secretion by mammary glands; suckling stimulates releasing hormone release and promotes continued production
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) or corticotropin stimulates glucocorticoid secretion by adrenal cortex
posterior pituitary does not synthesize hormones; stores and releases hormones made by the hypothalamus
oxytocin (OT) stimulates uterine contractions during childbirth, triggers milk ejection in women producing milk, role in sexual arousal and orgasm in males and females
antidiuretic hormone (ADH) or vasopressin decrease urine production by casing the kidneys to return more water to the blood; decreases water lost through sweating; constricts arterioles which increases blood pressure (vasopressin), alcohol inhibits ADH release and causes copious urine output
ADH deficiency diabetes insipidus; huge output of urine and intense thirst
thyroid gland located inferior to larnyx; two lateral lobes connected by isthmus
thyroid hormones throxine, triiodothyronine, calcitonin
calcitonin lowers blood calcium lwevels by stimulating calcium uptake and incorporation into bone matrix; inhibits osteoclast activity; antahonist to parathyroid hormone; removal of thyroid does not affect calcium homeostasis
Imbalance of TH Hyposecretion in adults hypothroidism
endemic goiter due to lack of iodine
imbalance of TH hyposecretion in infants cretinism (stunted physical and mental growth)
imbalances of TH hypersecretion grave's diesease
parathyroid gland 4-8 small glands embedded in the posterior of the thyroid
secrete parathyroid hormone (PTH) PTH is most important hormone in calcium homeostasis, stimulates osteoclasts to digest bone matrix; enhances reabsorption of calcium and secretion of phosphate by kidneys; promotes formation of the hormone calcitroil, the active form of Vitamin D
imbalances of PTH Hperparathyroidism bone soften and deform
imbalances of PTH hypoparathyroidism tetany- involuntary muscle contraction; respiratory paraylsis; death
adrenal glands paired, pyramid shaped organs atop of kidneys
2 regions of adrenal glands medulla, cortex
adrenal medulla part of sympathetic nervous system
epinephrine and nonrepinephrine blood glucose levels rise, blood vessels constrict, heart beats faster, blood diverted to the brain heart and skeletal muscle
pancreatic islets also called islets of langerhans; both exocrine and endocrine gland; triangular gland behind the stomach
Alpha secrete glucagon
gylcogenolysis breakdown of glycogen to glucose
gluconeogensis synthesis of glucose
beta secret insulin; inhibits glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis
neuronal development learning and memory
delta secret somatostatin; inhibit both insulin and glucagon
F cells secrete pancreatic polypeptide; inhibits somatostatin, gall bladder contraction ,and secretion of pancreatic digestive enzymes
Signs of diabetes mellitus polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia
polyuria huge urine output
polydipsia excessive thirst
polyphagia excessive hunger and food consumption
hyperinsulinism excessive insulin secretion, results in hypoglycemia- disorentation, unconsciousness
pineal gland small gland in the brain; secrete melatonin, derived from serotonin
melatonin may affect timing of sexual maturation and puberty; day/night cycles (more released during darkness than light), physilogical process that show rhythmic variations
gonads produce sex hormones
inhibin inhibits FSH
relaxin produced during pregnancy
estrogen and progesterone maturation of female reprodictive organs; sexual characteristics; breast development and cyclic changes in uterine lining
placenta secretes estrogen, progesterone, and human chorionic gonadotropin
testes produce testosterone
gastronintestinal tract enteroendocrine cells secretion stimulates liver and pancreas, gastrin stimulates release of Hydrochloric acis
thymus located behind sternum and between the lungs
thymus produces thymosin, thymic humoral factor (THF), thymic factor (TF), and thymopoietin
kidneys production of red blood cells
skin precursor of vitamin D
adipose tissue leptin- appetite control , stimulates increased energy expenditure
spinal cord located within the vertebral canal of the vertebral column; ranges from 42-45 cm in length, extends from brain to 3/4 down back
meninges are three layers of connective tissue coverings that extend around the spinal cord and brain
Spinal cord parts horns-gray tracts- white
white matter of spinal cord consists of tracts that serve as highways for nerve impulse conduction
gray matter of spinal cord recieves integrates incoming and outgoing information and is a site for integration of reflexes
reflex arc the pathway followed by nerve imoulses
soinal nerves named for the region from which they arise; 31 total pairs
regions of the brain cerebral hemispheres, diencephalon, brain stem, cerebellum
fissures deep grooves divide the cerebrum into lobes
surface lobes of the cerebrum frontal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe, temporal lobe
somatic sensory area receives impulses from the body's sensory receptors
primary motor area sends impulses to skeletal muscles
broca's area involved in out ability to speak
cerebral areas involved in special senses gustatory, visual, auditory, and olfactory area
interpretation areas of the cerebrum speech/language region, language comprehension region, general interpretation area
basal nuclei internal islands of gray matter
white matter (layers of the cerebrum) inner layer, myelinated
gray matter (layers of the cerebrum) outer layer, composed mostly of neuron cell bodies
diencephalon sits on top of the brain stem; enclosed by the cerebral hemispheres
Diencephalon is made of what three parts? thalamus, hypothamalmus, epothamlamus
thalamus the relay station for sensory impulses, transfers impulses to the correct part of the cortex for localization and interpretaion
hypothalamus under the thalamus, an important part of the limbic system
important autonomic nervous system center helps regulate body temp, controls water balance, regulates metabolism, eating and drinking
limbic system emotional brain
the pituitary gland is attached to the hypothalamus
epithalamus houses the pineal body
brain stem attaches to the spinal cord
parts of the brain stem midbrain, pons, medulla oblongota
midbrain reflex centers for vision and hearing
pons the bulging center part of the brain stem, includes nuclei involved in the control of breathing
medulla oblongota the lowest part of the brain stem
medulla oblongota contains which control centers? heart rate control, blood pressure regulation, breathing, swallowing, vomiting
Somatic nervous system SNS + ANS = ? PNS
ANS not under conscious control; regulated by hypothalamus, brainstem
the ANS supplies nerves to viscera
smooth muscle stomach, blood vessles
cardiac muscle heart
glands sweat and digestive glands
autonpmic nervous system the involuntary branch of the nervous system; consists of only motor nerves
autonomic nervous system divided into what two divisions? sympathetic, parasympathetic
somatic one motor neuron; conscious; voluntary
somatic-skeletal muscle effector organ
somatic- acetylcholine neurotransmitter
autonomic pre and postganglionic nerves, smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands- effector organs, acetylcholine, epinephrine, or nonrepinephrine- neurotransmitter, Unconscious, involuntary
sympathetic fight or flight
Sympathetic "E" division exercise, excitement, emergency, embarrassment
parasympathetic housekeeping activities; conserves energy
Parasympatheic "D" division digestion, defecation, and diuresis
(rest-and-digest activites) SLUDD salivation, lacrimation, urination, digestion, defaction
blood brain barrier includes the least permeable capillaries of the body; excludes many potentially harmful substances
blood brain barrier useless against fats and fat soluble molecules, respiratory gases, alcohol, nicotine, anesthesia
concussion slight brain injury, no permanent brain damage
contusion nervous tissue destruction occurs, tissue does not regenerate
cerebral edema swelling from inflammatory response; may compress and kill brain tissue
from early adulthood through old age decline in brain mass, fewer synaptic contacts brain function, some decrease in brain function
rapid brain growth in first few years of life increase in size of neurons and proliferation of neuroglia, increase in development of denderitic branches and synaptic contracts
olfactory nerve sensory for smell
optic nerve sensory for vision
oculomotor nerve motor fibers to eye muscles
trochlear motor fiber to eye muscles
trigeminal nerve sensory for the face; motor fibers to chewing muscles
abducens nerve motor fibers to eye muscles
facial nerve sensory for taste; motor fibers to the face
vestibulcochlear nerve sensory for balance and hearing
glossopharyngeal nerve sensory for taste; motor fibers to the pharyx
vagus nerves sensory and motor fibers for pharynx, laryx, and viscera
accessory nerve motor fibers to neck and upper back
hypoglossal nerve motor fibers to tongue
Created by: bmsmcr



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