Busy. Please wait.

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 

Username is available taken
show password


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
We do not share your email address with others. It is only used to allow you to reset your password. For details read our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.

Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.
Don't know
remaining cards
To flip the current card, click it or press the Spacebar key.  To move the current card to one of the three colored boxes, click on the box.  You may also press the UP ARROW key to move the card to the "Know" box, the DOWN ARROW key to move the card to the "Don't know" box, or the RIGHT ARROW key to move the card to the Remaining box.  You may also click on the card displayed in any of the three boxes to bring that card back to the center.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
restart all cards
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

Anatomy Test 2

Chapter 4

Tissues Groups of cells similar in structure that perform common or related function
Histology – Study of tissues
4 Main Tissues • Epithelial tissue – Covers • Connective tissue – Supports • Muscle tissue – Produces movement • Nerve tissue – Controls
Studying Human Tissue: Microscopy • Tissue is fixed – Preserved • Cut – Sliced thin enough to transmit light or l t electrons • Stained – Enhances contrast
Epithelial Tissue (Epithelium) • Form boundaries • Two main types (by location) – Covering and lining epithelia • On external and internal surfaces Gl d l ith li – Glandular epithelia • Secretory tissue in glands
Epithelial Tissue Functions • Protection • Absorption • Filtration • Excretion • Secretion • Sensory reception
Five Characteristics of Epithelial Tissues • Polarity • Specialized contacts • Supported by connective tissues • Avascular, but innervated • Can regenerate
Characteristics of Epithelial Tissue: Polarity • Cells have polarity – Apical surface (upper free) exposed to exterior or cavity – Basal surface (lower, attached) Both surfaces differ in structure and function
– Apical Surface of Epithelial Tissues • May be smooth & slick • Most have microvilli (e.g., brush border of intestinal lining) – Increase surface area • Some have cilia (e.g., lining of trachea)
Basal Surface of Epithelial Tissues • Noncellular basal lamina – Glycoprotein and collagen fibers lies adjacent to basal surface – Adhesive sheet Selective filter – Scaffolding for cell migration in wound repair
Characteristics of Epithelial Tissue: Specialized Contacts • Covering and lining epithelial tissues fit closely together – Form continuous sheets • Specialized contacts bind adjacent cells © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. – Lateral contacts • Tight junctions • Desmosomes
Characteristics of Epithelial Tissue: Connective Tissue Support • All are supported by connective tissue • Reticular lamina Deep to basal lamina Network of collagen fibers • Basement membrane B L + R L Reinforces epithelial sheet Resists stretching and tearing Defines epithelial boundary
Characteristics of Epithelial Tissue: Avascular but Innervated • No blood vessels in epithelial tissue – Must be nourished by diffusion from underlying connective tissues • Is supplied by nerve fibers
Characteristics of Epithelial Tissue: Regeneration • High regenerative capacity • Stimulated by loss of apical-basal polarity and lateral contacts – Some exposed to friction – Some exposed to hostile substances • If adequate nutrients can replace lost cells by cell division
Classification of Epithelia • All epithelial tissues have two names –# of layers • Simple epithelia = 1 layer • Stratified epithelia = 2 or more layers – Shape • Squamous • Cuboidal • Columnar • In stratified epithelia, epithelia classified by cell shape in apical layer
Cells of Epithelial Tissues • Squamous cells – Flattened and scalelike – Nucleus flattened • Cuboidal cells © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. – Boxlike – Nucleus round • Columnar cells – Tall; column shaped – Nucleus elongated
Classification of Epithelia: Simple Epithelia • Absorption • Secretion • Filtration • Very thin
Simple Squamous Epithelium • Cells flattened laterally • Cytoplasm sparse • Function where rapid diffusion is priority – i.e., kidney, lungs • Note description, function, location on next slide
Simple Squamous Epithelium • Two other locations – Endothelium • The lining of lymphatic vessels, blood vessels, and heart – Mesothelium • The epithelium of serous membranes in the ventral body cavity
Simple Cuboidal Epithelia • Single layer of cells • Secretion • Absorption • Forms walls of smallest ducts of glands and many kidney tubules • Note description, function, location on next slide
Simple Columnar Epithelium • Single layer of tall, closely packed cells • Absorption • Secretion • Note description, function, location on next slide
Pseudostratified Columnar Epitheliem • Cells vary in height – Cell nuclei at different levels – Appears stratified, but is not – Secretion Ab ti – Absorption – Note description, function, location on next slide
Stratified Epithelial Tissues • Two or more cell layers • Regenerate from below – Basal cells divide, cells migrate to surface • More durable than simple epithelia • Protection is major role
Stratified Squamous Epithelium • Most widespread of stratified epithelia • Free surface squamous; deeper layers cuboidal or columnar • Located for wear and tear • Those farthest from basal layer (and therefore nutrients) less viable
Stratified Columnar Epithelium • Limited distribution in body • Small amounts in pharynx, male urethra, and lining some glandular ducts • Also occurs at transition areas between two other types of epithelia • Only apical layer columnar
Created by: sarahflagg