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Ch.4 Integumentary

Integumentary System

Functions of integumentary system? Physical protection, thermoregulation, excretion, sensory information, storage of lipids, immune response to pathogens and cancers in skin
Epidermis of skin Consists of a stratified squamous epithelium, 4 cell types: keratinocytes (most abundant), melanocytes, kerkel cells, langerhans cells
Layers of the epidermis? Stratum basale, stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum, stratum lucidum, stratum corneum
Stratum Basale Deepest layer. Basal cells dominate stratum basale...replacing superficial keratinocytes. Contains melanocytes and merkel cells
Stratum Spinosum Keratinocytes are connected by desmosomes...melanocytes and langerhans cells are present
Stratum Granulosum Keratohyalin accumulates in electron-dense granules called keratohyalin granules. Cells of this layer also contain membrane bound granules that release their contents by EXOCYTOSIS- forms sheets of a lipid-rich substance...water resistant layer.
Callus is formed in stratum granuolosum Increased friction against skin stimulates increased keratohyalin and keratin synthesis by keratinocytes...results in formation of a callus
Stratum Lucidum Thick skin..palms of hands and soles of feet
Stratum Corneum Most superficial layer..abundant in keratinocytes
Keratinized Epithelium An epithelium containing large amounts of stratum corneum
Epidermal Ridges Stratum basale of epidermis forms epidermal ridges that extend into the dermis
Dermal Papilla Projections from dermis to epidermis...extend between adjacent ridges
Three factors that determine skin color Dermal blood supply, thickness of stratum corneum, carotene & melanin
Dermal Blood Supply When circulatory supply is temporarily reduced, the skin becomes pale
Carotene Accumulates inside keratinocytes, orange/yellow pigment of skin
Melanocytes melanin is stored inside melanocytes, respond to UV exposure by increasing rates of melanin synthesis and transfer
Cyanosis Dermal blood supply, bluish coloration of skin...most apparent in lips/beneath nails
How do stretch marks form? Extensive distortion of dermis that occurs over abdomen during pregnancy exceeds elastic capabilities of skin. Elastic fibers break and skin does not recoil to original size.
Lines of cleavage Orientation of collagen and elastic fibers arranged in bundles - aligned to resist applied forces
Line of clevage importance Parallel cut to line of clevage will remain closed but a cut at the right angle will be pulled open
Subcutaneous Layer Consists of loose connective tissue with abundant adipocytes
Subcutaneous layer difference in infants and adults As we grow, the distribution of subcutaneous fat changes..infants and children have extensive "baby fat".
Hypodermic Needle Subcutaneous injection is a useful method for administering drugs..hypodermic needle refers to the region targeted for injection
Difference between hair root and shaft Hair root extends from hair bulb to point where internal organization of hair is complete. Hair shaft extends to halfway skin surface to the exposed tip of hair
Exocrine Glands Classification Sebaceous glands and sweat glands
Sebaceous Glands Discharge a waxy sebum in hair foliciles
Sweat glands Apocrine and merocrine. Both contain myoepithelial cells
Apocrine Armpits/around nipples...odorous secretion
Merocrine palms/soles...secretes sweat
Skin Cancers Basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell caricoma, maligant melanoma
Basal Cell Carcinoma Originates in stratum basale, most common, found in areas subjected to UV exposure, inherited gene
Squamous Cell Carcinoma Restricted to areas of sun-exposed skin,
Maligant Melanoma Most dangerous, cancerous melanocytes grow rapidly
Created by: kimmyb37
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