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Cortex/Deep Nuclei/Diencephalon

How does grey and white matter differ organizationally in the spinal cord vs the brain? In the brain grey matter is outside and the white matter is inside. In the spinal cord the white matter is outside and the grey matter is inside.
Why is the organization of matter within the spinal cord reversed? To allow the axon tracts carrying action potentials to go down to the spinal cord and for the spinal cord to send that info back up.
What is the groove that separates your left brain from your white brain? Longitudinal Fissure
How is the left brain connected to the right brain? Axon tracts
What does the left hemisphere represent? Scientific/Logical Knowledge
What does the right hemisphere represent? Artistic Knowledge
What are fissures? Deep grooves
What are sulci? Shallow grooves
What are gyri? Hills between the sulci.
What are two important fissures of the brain? Longitudinal and lateral (Sylvian) fissures
What suclus separates the primary motor cortex from the primary sensory cortex? Central sulcus
What are two important gyri? Pre-central and post-central gyri
What is the post-central gyrus? Primary sensory cortex
What is the pre-central gyrus? Primary motor cortex
What does grey matter consist of? Neuronal cell bodies
What does white matter consist of? Myelinated axon tracts
What are cortical columns? The working units of the brain.
How big are cortical columns? 1 mm across on the surface of the brain, 3 mm deep.
How do cortical columns work? Axon tracts carry action potentials into the cortical columns where neurons compute the necessary info through graded potentials. Once a "decision" is made to produce an output the neurons generate an action potential.
What is found in each cortical column? Millions of neurons.
Where do you find cortical columns? Within the grey matter there are hundreds of thousands of cortical columns.
What is the benefit of cortical columns? Neurons don't need to send messages very far because they are all close together.
What are the lobes of the brain? Frontal, Parietal, Temporal, Occipital, Insular
What is the function of the frontal lobe? Logic, problem solving, intellect, personality, ethics, pre-motor cortex.
What is the function of the parietal lobe? Somatosensory area, puts all sense together to create one perception of the environment (association)
What is the function of the occipital lobe? Visual Cortex
What is the function of the temporal lobe? Auditory Cortex
What are the two parts to speech? Understanding the language and physically making speech.
What is Wernicke's area? The area responsible for understanding the language, what the words are, and putting them together with correct syntax.
What is Broca's area? The area responsible for making speech physically, it moves the mouth, tongue, and larynx.
Where is Wernicke's area found? Temporal lobe.
Where is Broca's area found? Primary motor cortex.
What would inability to make speech, or slurred speech be an indicator of? There would be a problem with Broca's area.
What would an ability to make nonsensical sounds and sentences be an indicator of? There would be a problem with Wernicke's area?
What is the frontal eye field? Makes you look at the spot you want to see with both eyes.
Where is the insular cortex? Under the lateral fissure.
What is the insular cortex? Area responsible for taste, organizes muscles for balance.
What is a somatotopic map? A depiction of the motor and sensory cortexes.
What can we learn from somatotopic maps? Everything is not bundled together but rather there are localizations of body parts.
What is a homunculus? A representation of the portion of the brain directly responsible for the movement and exchange of sensory and motor info throughout the body, resulting in a grotesquely disfigured human.
What does the homunculus look like? Huge hands, lips, and face in comparison to the rest of its body.
What does the homunculus tell us? There are more sensory and motor neurons dedicated to the hands and face then the trunk.
What are association fibres? Axon tracts that connect the lobes within a hemishpere.
What are commissural fibres? Axon tracts the connect the left hemisphere to the right hemisphere.
What is a major commissural fibre? Corpus Callosum
Give an example of how association fibres work. They connect the motor and sensory cortex's and allow us to move our fingers to pick up a piece of paper and feel when we have that paper in our finger.
What are projection fibres? Axon tracts that connect different parts of the CNS.
Where are the deep nuclei located? In amongst the white matter tracts, they form around the ventricles lateral to the diencephalon.
What are the two parts of deep nuclei? Limbic system and basal nuclei.
Where do you find the limbic system? Around the inside of the ventricles.
What are key components of the limbic system? Amygdala, hippocampus, fornix, and mammilary bodies.
Where do you find the basal ganglia? Around the outside of the ventricles.
What are key components of the basal ganglia? Caudate, Lentiform nuclei, and the amygdala.
What is the limbic system responsible for? Emotions and memory.
What is the function of the hippocampus? Long term memory formation, kind of acts like a time stamp of who, what, where, when.
How does output get out of the hippocampus? Via the Fornix
Where does output from the hippocampus go? To the cortex
What are the functions of the amygdala? Analyses anger and fear expressions, assesses danger and elicits a fear response
Where does output from the amygdala go? To the hypothalamus of the diencephalon.
Why does the amygdala send output to the diencephalon? To elicit a fight, flight, or fright response.
How does the amygdala recognize a response is needed? Through memory! If you've had a bad experience with someone you probably don't want to hug them.
How does the amygdala work? The amygdala is like a switch that turns the hypothalamus on or off depending on how it interprets the situation.
What is the connection between facial expressions and the amygdala? The amygdala will recognize minute visual expression changes and analyze whether it is a pleasurable experience or a unpleasurable experience.
What substance can have a profound effect on the amygdala? Organic solvents that have an effect on neurotransmission.
What inputs influence the amygdala's analysis? Visual, somatosensory, and smell
How does booze effect the amygdala? It impairs the amygdala and therefore you have a hard time distinguishing between being laughed at or with.
What are the three kinds of memory? Episodic, Semantic, Procedural
Where are memories stored? In the appropriate cortex, eg. a memory of what a furry cat feels like would be stored in the area associated with touch.
What is episodic memory? Stores specific personal experiences.
What is semantic memory? Stores factual information.
What is procedural memory? Stores memories of how to carry out specific actions.
How does semantic memory work? Information comes in and gets deposited in the temporal or parietal lobe.
What is an important concept for how episodic memory works? The Loop of Papez
What is the purpose of the loop of Papez? Allows you to reinforce memories by constantly putting them through the loop.
Where does the loop of Papez start? You can start at any part of the loop.
What is the pathway of the loop of Papez? Thalamus - Cingulate Cortex - Hippocampus - Fornix - Mammilary Bodies - Thalamus
Why is the cingulate cortex shaped like a loop? It can access all the other areas of the cortex.
What's the general rule with memory? The more you experience it the more likely you are to remember it.
What is the role of the Cingulate Cortex in the loop of Papez? Allows the sensations to travel to the right spot.
What is the role of the hippocampus in the loop of Papez? Stores and processes the who, what, when, and why of an experience.
What is the role of the fornix in the loop of Papez? A pathway that allows the memory to travel from the hippocampus to the mammilary bodies.
What is the role of the mammilary bodies in the loop of Papez? Add emotional components to the memory as well as smell.
How does the loop of Papez work? When you see something new, like a new car, it will pull relevant memories to the forefront of the brain and edit them to match the current situation.
What is procedural memory driven by? Proof? Vision, this is proved by the fact that when someone explains how to do something a person will easily get lost, you need to feel and see how to do something to learn it.
What are the two parts of the vision pathway? Motion and recognition.
What is the procedural pathway? Vision - Cerebellum - Basal Nuclei - Thalamus - Pre-Motor Cortex
What is the role of the basal nuclei in the procedural pathway? The basal nuclei stores pre-set routines that you need in order to carry out stereotypical movements. It also sends the memorized movement to the pre-motor and motor cortex's in order to initiate the motor function.
What happens if the areas involved in memory are destroyed? Amnesia
What are two types of amnesia? Alzeheimer's Disease and Hippocampal Atrophy
What causes Alzheimer's Disease? Atrophy of the cerebral cortex.
What is Alzheimer's Disease? The inability to recall recent and past memories, lack of attention, disorientation, language problems, lack of problem solving.
What is hippocampal atrophy? Inability to store new memories, inability to consolidate events, inability to recall past events.
What causes hippocampal atrophy? Atrophy of the hippocampus.
What is another name for the basal ganglia? Basal nuclei or Corpus Striatum
What is the role of the basal ganglia? Responsible for initiating and coordinating movements, especially start/stop motor movements.
What is the benefit of this structure? Eliminates unnecessary movements.
What are two diseases that effect the basal ganglia? Parkinson's disease (a patient can't get themselves moving), and Huntington's Corea (Can't stop moving)
What is the pathway of things travelling through the basal ganglia? Cortex - Caudate - Lenticular Nuclei - Thalamus - Cortex (FAST)
What is the function of the basal ganglia? Tells the motor cortex how to carry out a movement.
Describe the pathway involved in motor planning in terms of drinking beer. See beer - Thalamus - Visual Cortex(What is this thing?) - Parietal Cortex(Am I thirsty?) - Frontal Lobe(Let's drink that beer/should I?) - Primary Motor Cortex, Cerebellum, Basal Ganglia
How is the primary cortex involved in motor planning? Signalled by the frontal lobe to initiate the required motor movement
How is the Cerebellum involved in motor planning? Tells you where the beer is in space and allows for coordination of the motor movement.
How is the basal ganglia involved in motor planning? Checks to see if you've done the movement before and allows for a quick action.
Where is the diencephalon? Within the wall of the third ventricle and at the base of the brain.
What are the parts of the diencephalon? Thalamus, Hypothalamus, Pineal gland
What is the function of the thalamus? Relay area for all sensations to the cerebral cortex.
What is the function of the pineal gland? Generates circadian rhythms and releases melatonin.
What is selective attention? Allows you to pinpoint what sensations are important and ignore the rest.
What are the super seven? Responsible for 1) Control of ANS 2) Pleasure, Fear, Rage 3) Temperature Regulation 4) Appetite 5) Water Intake and Thirst 6) Sleep 7) Endocrine control
What is the hypothalamus? A collection of nuclei.
What does the super seven refer to? The functions of the hypothalamus
What is the connection between the two thalamus's called? Massa Intermedia
What sensations go into the thalamus? Vision, hearing, touch, pain, proprioception, pressure, and temperature.
How does selective attention work? The frontal lobe sends input to the thalamus to release only relevant sensations for the situation to the cerebral cortex.
Why is the frontal lobe involved in selective attention? The frontal is our personality and awareness of the world around us.
What kind of problems can you associate with a stroke occluding the thalamic arteries? Loss of sensation on contralateral side of the body, contralateral paralysis, and burning pain. The thalamus no longer works and therefore selective attention does not work either.
Created by: clem773