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Anatomy of Skeleton

Anatomy & Physiology

purpose of bones in the skeleton support soft tissues, protect vital organs, bear body's weight and help us move
facts about bones in the skeleton 206 named bones in the adult, and they differ in size, shape, and weight
skeletal system is divided into two regions called... axial skeleton and appendicular skeleton
characteristics of the axial skeleton composed of bones along central body axis (skull, vertebral column, and thoracic cage), and has spongy bone containing hemopoietic tissue
hemopoietic related to the process of formation and development of the various types of blood cells
purpose of the axial skeleton creates the framework that supports and protects organs
characteristics of the appendicular skeleton includes bones of upper and lower limbs, includes girdles of bones attaching limbs to axial skeleton such as the pectoral girdle and the pelvic girdle
purpose of the pelvic girdle hold the lower limbs in place
purpose of the pectoral girdle hold the upper limbs in place
bone markings are... surface features that characterize each bone
bone markings can include... projections (where muscles, tendons, and ligaments attach), smooth areas (sites of articulation between bones), and depressions, grooves, and openings (where blood vessels and nerves travel)
canal passageway through a bone
condyle large, smooth, rounded articulating oval structure
facet small, flat, shallow articulating surface
head prominent, rounded epiphysis
trochlea smooth, grooved, pulley-like articular process
articulating surfaces include... condyles, facets, heads, and trochlea
depressions include... alveolus (pl. alveoli), fossa (pl. fossae), and sulcus
projections for tendon and ligament attachment include... crest, epicondyle, line, process, ramus (pl. rami), spine, trochanter, tubercle, and tuberosity
openings and spaces include... canal, fissure, foramen (pl. foramina), meatus, and sinus
fissure narrow, slitlike opening through a bone
foramen rounded passageway through a bone
meatus passageway through a bone
sinus cavity or hollow space in a bone
crest narrow, prominent, ridge-like projection
epicondyle projection adjacent to a condyle
line low ridge
process any marked bony prominence
ramus angular extension of a bone relative to the rest of the structure
spine pointed, slender process
trochanter massive, rough projection found only on the femur
tubercle small, round projection
tuberosity large, rough projection
alveolus deep pit or socket in the maxillae or mandible
fossa flattened or shallow depression
sulcus narrow groove
skull is... the most complex structure in the skeleton as it is comprised of 22 bones and contains cranial and facial bones
two sets of bones in the skull are... cranial bones and facial bones
cranial bones enclose the brain in the cranial cavity and provide sites of attachment for head and neck muscles (dome of skull)
facial bones provide the framework for the face, contains cavities for special sense organs (i.e. sight, taste, and smell), has openings for food and air passage, and provides sites of attachment for teeth and muscles of facial expression
cranial bones include... frontal bones, parietal bones (2), occipital bone, and temporal bones (2)
facial bones include... mandible, maxillary bones (2), zygomatic bones (2), nasal bones (2), lacrimal bones (2), palatine bones (2), vomer, ethmoid bone, and sphenoid bone
mandible lower jaw, strongest bone of the face, and has the temporomandibular joint
maxillary bone medially fused to form upper jaw (above teeth, but below nose) and central portion of the facial skeleton
zygomatic bones cheekbones (right under eye)
nasal bones form bridge of nose (part you can't move left and right)
vomer amid the cartilage of the nose and separates the left and right nasal cavities
TMJ (temporomandibular joint) only freely movable part of the skull
lacrimal bones in medial walls of orbits (posterior to nasal bone)
palatine bones roof of the mouth (palate = roof of mouth)
ethmoid separates nasal cavity from brain
sphenoid behind orbits of eye in frontal plane (looks like batman)
hyoid bone sesamoid bone (floating bone - does not articulate with any other bone) (forms attachment sites for tongue and larynx muscles and ligaments) that is slender and curved; inferior to the skull between the mandible and the larynx
purpose of the vertebral column transmits weight of trunk to lower limbs, provides vertical support for the body, supports the weight of the head, helps maintain an upright body position, shock absorber, surrounds and protects spinal cord, and movement
the spine is curved to... help absorb shock (slouching promotes bad muscle alignment along spine)
flexion bending forward
extension bending backward
rotation twisting
flexion to left and right bending toward right or left
the vertebral column is composed of... 7 cervical vertebrae, 12 thoracic vertebrae, 5 lumbar vertebrae, 5 sacrum (fused), and 3-5 coccyx (fused)
common structural features of the spine body, vertebral foramen, vertebral canal, spinous process, and transverse processes
body thick, anterior weight-bearing structure
vertebral canal formed by stacked vertebral foramina that contains the spinal cord
vertebral foramen opening enclosed by body with vertebral arch
spinous process projecting posteriorily from laiminae junction
transverse processes lateral projection on both sides of vertebral arch
cervical vertebrae seven vertebrae that form bones of the neck (C1-C7) (most superiorly place vertebrae) and support only the weight of the head; they are relatively small and light (C7 articulates with the first thoracic vertebra)
Atlas C1 (articulates with the occipital condyles) and is the topmost vertebrae (hold the base of the skull and has no vertebral body)
atlanto-occipital joint joint that includes the atlas and allows nodding
Axis C2 (second cervical vertebrae) is characterized by the dens and is associated witht he atlantoaxial joint
dens acts as a pivot for lateral rotation between atlas and skull
atlantoaxial joint between the axis and atlas and permits the shaking of the head "no"
thoracic vertebrae form superior region of the back and each vertebrae articulates laterally with one or two pairs of ribs (12 vertebrae T1 - T12) (T12 articulates with the first lumbar vertebra)
lumbar vertebrae largest vertebrae with thick, oval bodies; bear most of the weight of the body and form inferior concave region ("small" of the back); 5 vertebrae (L1 - L5) and the L5 articulates inferiorly with the first sacral vertebra
sacrum formed from five sacral vertebrae that are fused into a single structure by the late 20s; (S1 - S5) articulates with the L5 superiorly and the first coccygeal vertebra inferiorly (laterally articulates with two hip bones)
coccyx commonly called the "tailbone" and is 3-5 fused coccygeal vertebrae (Co1 - Co5); Co1 articulates with inferior end of sacrum; may fuse to sacrum (begins around age 25); is the attachment site for several ligaments and muscles
purpose of intervertebral discs are pads of fibrocartilage separating vertebral bodies, act as shock absorbers, and allows vertebral column to bend
anatomy of intervertebral discs 90% water and composed of an annulus fibrosus and a nucleus pulposus
annulus fibrosus outer ring of fibrocartilage
nucleus pulposus jelly-like substance inside the annulus fibrosus that absorbs compression
thoracic cage (rib cage) bony framework of the chest that acts as a protective enclosure around thoracic organs and provides attachment sites for many muscles
thoracic cage consists of... thoracic vertebrae posteriorly, ribs laterally, and sternum anteriorly
bones of the thorax include... manubrium, sternum, xiphoid process, and 12 pairs of ribs (7 true ribs, 5 false ribs [2 floating ribs])
manubrium widest and most superior portion of sternum that has clavicular notches and costal notches
clavicular notch articulates sternum with left and right clavicles
costa notch articulations for first ribs' costal cartilages
sternum body longest part of the sternum and costal cartilages from ribs 2-7 attach here
xiphoid process at the tip of the sternum and doesn't ossify until age 40 (don't break this during CPR... it could puncture the rib if it breaks off)
costal cartilage connects bone to sternum
true ribs ribs 1-7; connect directly to the sternum by costal cartilage
false ribs ribs 8-12; costal cartilages not attached directly to the sternum (ribs 8-10 are fused to costal cartilage of rib 7 and indirectly attached to the sternum and ribs 11-12 do not connect to the sternum and are called floating ribs)
pectoral (shoulder) girdle articulates with the trunk, supports the upper limbs, and consists of the clavicles and the scapulae
the clavicle commonly known as the collarbone, it is an elongated S-shaped bone that extends between manubrium and acromion of the scapula
the clavicle is S-shaped because it can help with movement and can withstand different kinds of forces and can absorb shock
sternal end of the clavicle articulates with the manubrium and forms the sternoclavicular joint
acromial end articulates with the acromion of the scapula and forms the acromioclavicular join
scapula broad, flat, triangular bone that forms the "shoulder blad" and is easily palpated on superolateral back region
borders of the scapula superior border, medial border, and lateral border
superior border of the scapula horizontal edge superior to scapula spine
medial border of the scapula edge closest to the vertebrae
lateral border of the scapula edge close to the axilla
angles of the scapula superior angle, inferior angle, and lateral angle
superior angle of the scapula between superior and medial borders
inferior angle of the scapula between medial and lateral borders
later angle of the scapula primarily made up of the glenoid cavity
glenoid cavity cup-shaped, shallow that articulates with humerus
parts of the scapula spine, acromion process, and coracoid process
spine ridge of bone on posterior aspect of the scapula (can touch above and below)
acromion process large posterior process forming shoulder's bony tip that is continuous with the spine (at the end of the spine (you can feel it))
coracoid process smaller, more anterior projection that is a site for muscle attachment
scapular fossa subscapular fossa, supraspinous fossa, and the infraspinous fossa
subscapular fossa broad, anterior surface of the scapula (the subscapularis muscle is here)
supraspinous fossa depression superior to the spine (the supraspinatus muscle is here)
infraspinous fossa inferior to the spine (the infraspinatus muscle is here)
bones of the upper limb 1 humerus, 1 radius, and 1 ulna, 8 carpal bones, 5 metacarpal bones, and 14 phalanges
humerus longest and largest upper limb bone and forms elbow join with bones from the radius and ulna
components of the humerus proximal end w/ a hemispherical head (articulates w/ glenoid cavity) [greater tubercle, lesser tubercle, bicipital groove (intertubercular sulcus), & the shaft], and a distal end with two curved surfaces [medial & lateral epicondyles & the trochlea]
greater tubercle positioned lateral to the head and helps form rounded contour of the shoulder
lesser tubercle smaller and more medial to the head
bicipital groove (intertubercular sulcus) between two tubercles and is the depression containing tendon of long head of biceps brachii muscle
medial and lateral epicondyles bony side projections on distal humerus that can be palpated on the sides of the elbow
trochlea articulates with the trochlear notch of the ulna
the forearm is composed of... the radius and the ulna (parallel bones, the radius is more lateral and the ulna is longer) [ulna is more prominent at elbow and radius is more prominent at the wrist]
components of the radius disc-shaped head at the proximal end, radial tuberosity, the shaft (curves slightly), and the styloid process
head of the radius articulates with the capitulum of the humerus
radial tuberosity attachment site for biceps brachii
styloid process of the humerus bony projection at the distal end of the radius
components of the ulna U-shaped trochlear notch at the proximal end and the olecranon process
trochlear notch interlocks with trocklea of the humerus
olecranon process projection on posterosuperior trochlear notch that forms posterior "bump" of the elbow
borders between the radius and ulna connected by an interosseous membrane
interosseous membrane composed of dense regular, connective tissue and helps keep radius and ulna a fixed distance apart (so they don't come together and grind) and provides a pivot of rotation for the forearm
supination in anatomic position with the palm of the hand facing anteriorly, the radius and ulna parallel (radius on the lateral side of the forearm and ulna on the medial side)
pronation radius and ulna pivot along the interosseous membrane and the palm of the hand faces posteriorly (the head of the radius is still on the lateral side of the forearm, but the distal end of the radius has crossed over)
carpals bones that form the wrist and allow for multiple movements of the wrist (arranged in two rows of four bones each)
proximal carpal row from lateral to medial scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, pisiform
distal carpal row from lateral to medial trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, and hamate
metacarpals bones in the palm of the hand that articulate with distal carpal bones and support the palm
phalanges in sets of three excluding the thumb and are named by number and proximal, middle and distal
pelvis composed of four bones (sacrum, coccyx, right and left hip (ossa coxae)
pelvic girdle refers to the left and right ossa coxae only as they articulate with the trunk and provide attachment points for lower limbs
difference between shoulder joint and hip joint... the shoulders and move independently of each other and the hips are not independent of one another
os coxae commonly referred to as the hip bone and is formed from three bones (ilium, ischium, and the pubis)
os coxae fuse when... between ages 13 and 15
os coxae articulates with the femur at the acetabulum (C-shaped smooth surface on acetabulum fossa articulates with the femoral head)
acetabulum deep, curved depression on the lateral side of the os coxae where three bones have fused
ilium has the iliac crest, iliac fossa, Anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) [lots of muscles attach at the ASIS] and Posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS) [back dimples]
iliac crest the superiormost ridge of the ilium
iliac fossa flat face on the medial aspect of the ilum
ischium composed of the ischial tuberosity and the ischial ramus
ischial tuberosity bears weight of the body in sitting position and the hamstrings attach here
ischial ramus extends from ischial tuberosity toward fusion with pubis
pubis composed of the inferior pubic ramus, the superior pubic ramus, and the obturator foramen
obturator foramen space in os coxae that is encircledby pubic and ischial rami
shoulder dislocations are more common than hip dislocations because... the femur fits better into the acetabulum fossa than the shoulder fits into the glennoid fossa
bones of the lower limb 1 femur, 1 patella, 1 tibia and 1 fibula, 7 tarsal bones, 5 metatarsal bones, and 14 phalanges
femur longest, heaviest, strongest bone int he bone
components of the femur spherical head, elongated neck that joins the shaft of the femur at an angle, the greater trochanter and lesser trochanter, the linea aspera, the medial and lateral condyles, and the patellar surface
head of the femur articulates with os coxae at the acetabulum
linea aspear posterior aspect of the shaft of the femur
patellar surface smooth depression on anterior surface where patella articulates with the femur
patella aka the kneecap, is a large, triangular sesamoid bone that allows the tendon to glide more smoothly (the superior part is the base and the inferior, pointed part is the apex)
articular surface of the posterior aspect of the patella articules with patella surface of the femur
components of the tibia medial and lateral condyles, tibial tuberosity, anterior border, and medial malleolus (ankle bone)
medial and lateral condyles relatively flat surfaces on superior head of the tibia that articulate with medial and lateral condyles of the femur
tibial tuberosity anterior surface near proximal condyles that form the attachment site for the patellar ligament
anterior border often referred to as the shin that forms the ridge extending distally along the anterior tibial surface
medial mallelous large process on medial, distal border that can be palpated on the side of the ankle
fibula does not articulate with the femur, but is a long, lateral, non-weight-bearing bone
components of the fibula knoblike head that is inferior and posterior to tibia's lateral condyle, a distal tip (lateral malleolus - palpate on lateral side of the ankle)
connection between tibia and fibula interroseous membrane (stabilizes relative positions of tibia and fibula and provides pivot of minimal rotation for the bones
tarsals 7 bones of the ankle and proximal foot
tarsal bones include... talus, calcaneous, navicular bone, medial, intermediate and lateral cuneiform bones, and the cuboid bone
talus superiormost and second largest tarsal bone that articulates with the tibia
calcaneous largest tarsal bone, forms the heel (posterior end with projection for attachment of calcaneal tendon)
navicular bone on the medial side of the ankle
cuneiform bones wedge-shaped bones that are positioned anterior to navicular bone
cubiod bone laterally placed and articulates with lateral cuneiform medially and calcaneous posteriorly
metatarsals form arched sole of foot and articulates proximally with cuneiform bones or cuboid bones, and each articulates distally with a proximal phalanx
phalanges of the foot bones of the toes; the hallux only has two, and the rest have 3 (characterized by number and proximal, middle, and distal)
pollux thumb
Created by: Nicolekr
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