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Anatomy & Physiology

joints allow for... different types and ranges of movement
joint place of contact between bones, bone and cartilage, or bones and teeth
arthrology the study of joints
structural classification of joints fibrous join, cartilaginous joint, and synovial joint
fibrous joint has no joint cavity and the bones are held together by dense connective tissue (i.e. lambdoid suture, skull, hip)
joint cavity space between bone and the next bone (if none, fused together)
cartilaginous joint has no join cavity and bones are joined by cartilage (i.e. intervertebral disc articulations)
synovial joint fluid-filled joint cavity that separates articulating surfaces of bones; surfaces are enclosed within connective tissue and bones are attached by ligaments (i.e. elbow joint)
functional classification of joints synarthrosis, amphiarthrosis, and diarthrosis
synarthrosis immobile joint that can be a fibrous or a cartilaginous joint (i.e. tooth to jaw)
amphiarthrosis slightly mobile joint that can be fibrous or cartilaginous (i.e. articulation between tibia and fibula
diarthrosis freely mobile joint (all synovial joints) (i.e. knee joint)
range of motion at joints motion ranges from no movement to extensive movement, the structure of each joint determines mobility and stability, and there is an inverse relationship between mobility and stability
characteristics of fibrous joints connected by dense regular connective tissue, have no joint cavity, are immobile or slightly mobile (i.e. teeth in sockets, sutures between skull, between radius and ulna
three most common types of fibrous joints gomphoses, sutures, syndesmoses
gomphoses "peg in a socket" - an articulation of teeth with sockets of mandible and maxillae (only one in the human body)
sutures immobile fibrous joints - only b/w certain bones of the skull, have interlocking, usu. irregular edges (increase strength & decrease number of fractures), & permit skull to grow as brain increases in size during childhood (becomes ossified in older adult)
syndesmoses allow for slight mobility, found b/w radius and ulna and tibia and fibula (bound by interosseous membrane), and provides a pivot (radius and ulna able to move against each other, tibia and fibular = separated)
interosseous membrane broad ligamentous sheet
properties of cartilaginous joints have cartilage b/w articulating bones (either hyaline or fibrocartilage), lack a joint cavity, are immobile or slightly mobile
types of cartilaginous joints synchodroses or symphyses
synchodrosis bones joined by hyaline cartilage, all immobile (i.e. hyaline cartilage of epiphyseal plates - b/w epiphysis and diaphysis and i.e. costal cartilage - costachondral joint b/w bony rib and costal cartilage)
symphysis pad of fibrocartilage b/w articulating bones (resists compression and acts as a shock absorber) and all allow mobility (i.e. pubic symphysis b/w L & R pubic bones (becomes more mobile during pregnancy) and i.e. intervertebral joints)
intervertebral joints bodies of adjacent vertebrae separated by intervertebral discs that allow only slight movement between adjacent vertebrae, and together allow spine considerable flexibility
synovial joints all are diathrotic joints - freely mobile articulations that include most joints in the body; bones are separated by a space (joint cavity)
basic features of synovial joints articular capsule and joint cavity, synovial fluid, articular cartilage, and ligaments, nerves, and blood vessels
joint capsule double-layered capsule that is called the articular capsule; has an outer, fibrous layer , and an inner, synovial membrane layer
inner layer (synovial membrane) composed primarily of aerolar connective tissue, covers all internal joint surfaces not covered by cartilage, and helps produce synovial fluid
outer layer, fibrous layer formed by dense connective tissue and strengthens joints to prevent bones from being pulled apart
articular cartilage articulating bone is covered by hyaline cartilage and is avascular (like all cartilage)
functions of articular cartilage reduces friction during movement, acts as a cushion to absorb joint compression, and prevents damage to articulating ends of bones
ligaments dense regular connective tissue that connects one bone to another bone and stabilizes, strengthens and reinforces most synovial joints
tendons composed of dense regular connective tissue and are not part of the synovial joint itself, but attach muscle to bone (muscle moving the bone where attached), helps stabilize joints, and sometimes limits the range of movements permitted at a joint
bursa a fibrous, saclike structure containing synovial fluid that is lined internally by synovial membrane and is associated with most synovial joints, and it alleviates friction resulting from body movements
where bursa are found found where bones, ligaments, muscles, skin, or tendons rub together, and is connected to the joint cavity or separate from it, and
classification of synovial joints (by shapes of surfaces and movement allowed uniaxial joint, biaxial joint, and multiaxial joint
uniaxial joint bone moves in just one plane or axis (i.e. elbow)
biaxial joint bone moves in two planes or axes (metacarpalphalangial joint)
multiaxial joint bone moves in multiple planes or axes (shoulder and hip)
six types of synovial joint plane (gliding), hinge/ginglymus, pivot, condylar, saddle/sellar, and ball & socket
Plane/gliding joint simplest synovial articulation, least mobile type of diathrosis, uniaxial joint, limited side-to-side movement in a single plane, and articular surfaces are flat (i.e. intercarpal and intertarsal joints)
hinge joint formed by convex surface fitting into concave depression, movement confined to a single axis (uniaxial), and is like the hinge of a door (i.e. elbow joint, knee, and interphalangeal joint)
pivot joint bone with a rounded surface (fits into ring formed by ligament from another bone and rotates on longitudinal axis relative to second bone), is uniaxial (i.e. proximal radioulnar joint and dens of axis and anterior arch of atlas)
radioulnar joint rounded head of radius pivots along ulna and permits radius to rotate
dens of axis and anterior arch of atlas pivots when shake head "no"
condylar joint biaxial joint (moves in two planes), is oval, convex surface articulating with concave surface (i.e. metacarpophalangeal joints of fingers 2 to 5 (knuckles)
metacarpophalangeal joints can flex and extend to fingers and can also move fingers apart from one another
saddle joint convex and concave surfaces resembling the saddle shape that is biaxial and allows for greater range of movement than condylar or hinge joints (i.e. carpometacarpal joint of the thumb - permits thumb to move toward other fingers)
ball-and-socket joint considered the most freely mobile type of joint, this multiaxial joint permits movement in three planes and the spherical head of one bone fits into the cuplike socket of another (i.e. coxal and glenohumeral joints)
lever elongated, rigid object that rotates around a fixed point (fulcrum or axis)
levers can change... speed and distance of movement produced by a force, the direction of the force applied, and the strength of the force (how a body makes motion)
effort force applied to one point
resistance load located at some other point
fulcrum or axis fixed point that something rotates around
movement occurs when... effort exceeds resistance
effort arm part of the lever from fulcrum to point of effort
resistance arm part of lever from fulcrum to point of resistance
biomechanics practice of applying mechanical principles to biology (i.e. comparing joint movement and muscle contraction to a lever - long bone as lever, joint as fulcrum, and effort generated by muscle)
3 classes of levers 1st class, 2nd class, and third class
1st class lever FAR (fulcrum, axis in the middle, and resistance at the other end) (i.e. scissors, see-saw, old-school balance, or a head), advantage - can balance because the axis is in the middle
2nd class lever ARF (axis, resistance in the middle, and then force), resistance arm is always shorter than the effort arm (i.e. foot lift, wheel barrow), advantage - allows you to overcome a ton of force
3rd class lever AFR (axis, force in the middle, and then resistance), effort arm is shorter than resistance arm (i.e. golf club, bicep curl), advantage - allows greater range of motion and greater speed of motion
movements of synovial joints gliding, angular motion, flexion, extension, hyperextension, lateral flexion, abduction, adduction, circumduction, rotation, depression, elevation, dorsiflexion, plantar flexion, inversion, eversion, protraction, retraction, opposition, and reposition
gliding two opposing surface slide back-and-forth or side-to-side leaving the angle between the bones unchanged (only limited movement in either direction and typically occurs along plane joints) (i.e. between carpals and tarsals)
angular motion one of the four types of motion occurring at synovial joints that either increases or decreases the angle between two bones (includes: flexion, extension, hyperextension, lateral flexion, abduction, adduction, and circumduction)
flexion movement in the sagittal and decreases the angle between the bones (bones brought closer together) (i.e. bending finger toward the palm)
extension opposite of flexion, increases angle between articulating bones (i.e. straightening fingers after making a fist)
hyperextension joint extended more than 180 degrees (i.e. glancing up at the ceiling while standing)
lateral flexion trunk of body moving in coronal plane laterally (side bending), occurs primarily between vertebrae in the cervical and lumbar region
abduction lateral movement of body part away from midline (i.e. arm or thigh moved laterally from body midline)
abduction of fingers fingers spread away from longest digit (actinga s midline)
adduction medial movement of body part toward midline (i.e. thigh brought back to midline
circumduction proximal end of appendage relatively stationary and distal end makes a circular motion (imaginary cone-shaped motion) (occurs as a result of flexion, abduction, extension, adduction, internal, & external rotation)(i.e. drawing a circle on the blackboard)
rotation bone pivoting on its own longitudinal axis
lateral rotation (extended rotation) turns anterior surface of femur or humerus laterally
medial rotation (internal rotation) turns anterior surface of femur or humerus medially
pronation medial rotation of forearm so palm of the hand is posterior (pour soup out)
supination lateral rotation of forearm so palm of the hand is anterior (hold soup)
special movements occur at specific joints and do not readily fit other functional categories
depression inferior movement of a part of the body (i.e. movement of mandible while opening the mouth or relaxing shoulders)
elevation superior movement of a body part (i.e. superior movement of mandible while closing mouth or shrugging shoulders)
dorsiflexion limited to the ankle joint and is when the talocrural joint is bent so the dorsum (superior surface) of the foot moves toward the leg (i.e. when digging in your heels)
plantar flexion talocrural joint is bent so the dorsum is pointed interiorly (i.e. ballerina on tip toes in full plantar flexion or stepping on the gas peddle)
inversion occurs at intertarsal joints in the foot only and occurs when the sole turns medially (more mobility = more ankle sprains)
eversion occurs at intertarsal joints of foot only and is when the sole turns laterally
protraction anterior movement from anatomic position (i.e. jutting out the jaw anteriorly at temporomandibular joint, underbites, hug somebody)
retraction posterior movement from anatomic position (i.e. jutting out the jaw posteriorly at temporomandibular joint, major over bites, sticking out your chest)
opposition movement of thumb toward palmar tips of fingers at carpometacarpal joint, enables the thumb to grasp objects
reposition opposite movement in which the thumb is released from the palmar position
glenohumeral (shoulder) joint a ball-and-socket joint that is formed by the head of the humerus and the glenoid cavity of the scapula, permits greatest range of motion of any joint in the body and is the most unstable and most frequently dislocated
parts of the glenohumeral joint fibrocartilaginous glenoid labrum and rotator cuff muscles
glenoid labrum covers the surface of the glenoid cavity and is meant to deepen the glenoid cavity to provide more stability
rotator cuff muscles work as a group to hold the head of the humerus in the glenoid cavity and the inferior portion lacks muscles, most easily injured; this provides the most joint strength
elbow joint hinge joint composed of two articulations
articulations at the elbow joint humeroulnar joint and the humeroradial joint
humeroulnar joint trochlear notch of ulna articulating with trochlea of humerus
humeroradial joint capitulum of humerus articulating with head of radius
ligaments of elbow joint radial collateral ligament, ulnar collateral ligament, and annular ligament
radial collateral ligament stabilizes joint at lateral face and extends head of radius
ulnar collateral ligament stabilizes medial side of the joint and extends to coronoid process of the ulna and olecranon
annular ligament surrounds the neck of the radius and binds proximal head of the radius to the ulna
hip joint articulation between head of the femur and acetabulum of the ox coxae; more stable, but less mobile than the glenohumeral joint and provides the most support to the body
acetabular labrum fibrocartilaginous ring of the hip joint that further deepens the acetabulum making the joint more stable
ligaments of the hip iliofemoral ligament, ischiofemoral ligament, pubofemoral ligament, ligament of the head of femur
iliofemoral ligament ligament providing strong support for anterior articular capsule
ischiofemoral ligament interscapular ligament posteriorly located
pubofemoral ligament triangular thickening of capsule's inferior region that becomes taunt when hip is extended (hip is most stable in the extended portion)
ligament of the head of femur originates along acetabulum and attaches fovea of femur socket (inside hip socket)
the hip joint gets its stability from... deep bony socket, strong articular capsule, supporting ligaments, and muscular padding
movements possible at the hip joint include: flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, rotation, and circumduction
knee joint largest and most complex diarthrosis that is primarily a hinge joint (can also be a rotational joint); capable of slight rotation and lateral gliding when flexed
knee joint is composed of two separate articulations thiofemoral joint and patellofemoral joint
thiofemoral joint between condyles of femur and condyles of tibia
patellofemoral joint between patella and patellar surface of femur
structures of the knee joint quadriceps tendon, patellar ligament, lateral (fibular) collateral ligament, medial (tibial) collateral ligament, cruciate ligaments, anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), posterior cruciate ligament (PCL), medial meniscus, and lateral meniscus
quadriceps tendon passes over knee's anterior surface and the patella is embedded here
patellar ligament extends from patella to tibial tuberosity; may also be called a tendon, but ligament suggests what it really is (attachment of bone to bone)
lateral (fibular) collateral ligament reinforces lateral surface of joint, extends from femur to fibula, and prevents hyperadduction of leg at the knee
medial (tibial) collateral ligament reinforces medial surface of knee joint, extends from femur to tibia, and prevents hyper abduction of leg at the knee
cruciate ligament deep to the articular capsule of knee joint, limits anterior and posterior movement of femur on this, and crosses each other in an X
anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) extends from posterior femur to anterior tibia, prevents hyperextension, and prevents tibia moving too far anteriorly on the femur
posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) runs from anterioinferior femur to posterior tibia, prevents hyperflexion, and prevents posterior displacement of tibia on the fibia
medial meniscus and lateral meniscus c-shaped fibrocartilage pads that are positioned on condyles of tibia and partially stabilize joint medially and laterally, act as cushioning between articular surfaces, and change shape to conform to articulating surfaces
ankle joints talocrural joint and subtalar joint
talocrural joint between talus and malleoli of tibia and fibula and allow plantarflexion and dorsiflexion
subtalar joint between talus and calcaneous (below talus), and allows PF/DF (at talocrural joint), inversion and eversion
Created by: Nicolekr