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Muscle Tissue

QuestionAnswer
Latin word for “little mouse” Muscle
1. Skeletal Muscle Tissue 2. Cardiac Muscle Tissue, & 3. Smooth Muscle Tissue
squeezes fluids and other substances through hollow organs Smooth muscle
4 main functions of Muscle Tissue 1) Maintenance of posture & producing body movement—enables the body to remain sitting or standing 2) Stabilizating body positions 3) Storing & moving substances within the body 4) Heat generation
4 main features of Muscle Tissue Contractility-long cells shorten and generate pulling force Excitability-electrical nerve impulse stimulate contraction Extensibility-stretched back to its original length by contraction of an opposing muscle Elasticit-recoil after being stretched
Packaged into skeletal muscles Makes up 40% of body weight Cells are striated
occupies the walls of hollow organs, squeezes fluids and other substances through hollow organs, cells lack striations
Cells of smooth and skeletal muscle are known as: fibers
Plasma membrane of muscle cells is called the sarcolemma
Cystoplasm of muscle cells is called the sarcoplasm
Each muscle is an organ Each muscle is an organ
dense regular connective tissue surrounding entire muscle Epimysium
surrounds each fascicle (group of muscle fibers) Perimysium
a fine sheath of connective tissue wrapping each muscle cell Endomysium
Connective tissue sheaths are continuous with tendons Connective tissue sheaths are continuous with tendons
provide elasticity and carry blood vessels and nerves Sheaths
Each skeletal muscle is supplied by branches of One nerve One artery One or more veins
Smallest nerve branches serve
Bone markings present where tendons meet bones: Tubercles, trochanters, and crests
Length and diameter of skeletal muscle fiber ((very large)): Diameter:10–100µm Length: several centimeters
Skeletal Muscle Tissue cells are multinucleate and the nuclei are peripherally located Skeletal Muscle Tissue cells are multinucleate and the nuclei are peripherally located
Striations result from myofibrils
Are long rods within cytoplasm Make up 80% of the cytoplasm Are a specialized contractile organelle found in muscle tissue Are a long row of repeating segments called sarcomeres (functional unit of Skeletal MT) Myofibrils
Overlap inner ends of the thin filaments Contain ATPase enzymes Thick (myosin) filaments
Full length of the thick filament (includes inner end of thin filaments) A bands
center part of A band where no thin filaments occur H zone
A bands and I bands refract polarized light differently: A bands —anisotropic I bands —isotropic A bands and I bands refract polarized light differently: A bands —anisotropic I bands —isotropic
in center of H zone Contains tiny rods that hold thick filaments together M line
region with only thin filaments Lies within two adjacent sarcomeres I band
A specialized smooth ER that contains calcium ions that are released when muscle is stimulated to contract
What do calcium ions trigger when by diffusing through the cytoplasm? Sliding filament mechanism
deep invaginations of sarcolemma T tubules
Triad
muscle shortens to do work Concentric contraction
muscle generates force as it lengthens Eccentric contraction (resists gravity) (e.g. "Down" portion of a pushup)
Striation pattern when fully relaxed thin filaments partially overlap thin filaments
Striation pattern when contracted Z discs move closer together Sarcomere shortens I bands shorten, H zone disappears A band remains the same length
Muscle is stretched by a movement opposite that which contracts it Muscle extension
The greatest force is produced when a fiber: starts out slightly stretched
Myosin heads can pull along the entire length of the thin filaments Myosin heads can pull along the entire length of the thin filaments
a spring-like molecule in sarcomeres Resists overstretching Holds thick filaments in place Unfolds when muscle is stretched Titin
point where nerve ending and muscle fiber meet Neuromuscular junction
Ends of axons Store neurotransmitters Axon terminals
space between axon terminal and sarcolemma Synaptic cleft
2 characteristic categories of skeletal muscle fibers 1) How they manufacture energy (ATP) 2) How quickly they contract
produce ATP aerobically Oxidative fibers
produce ATP anaerobically Glycolytic fibers
3 classes of skeletal muscle fibers
Red color due to abundant myoglobin Obtain energy from aerobic metabolic reactions Contain a large number of mitochondria Richly supplied with capillaries Contract slowly and resistant to fatigue Fibers are small in diameter Slow oxidative fibers
Have an intermediate diameter Contract quickly like fast glycolytic fibers Are oxygen-dependent Have high myoglobin content and rich supply of capillaries Somewhat fatigue-resistant More powerful than slow oxidative fibers Fast oxidative fibers
Muscle tissues have few disorders (with the exception of the heart) Skeletal muscle is remarkably resistant to infection Smooth muscle problems stem from external irritants Muscle tissues have few disorders (with the exception of the heart) Skeletal muscle is remarkably resistant to infection Smooth muscle problems stem from external irritants
A group of inherited muscle destroying disease Affected muscles enlarge with fat and connective tissue Muscles degenerate
2 types of muscular dystrophy
Skeletal muscles contract by which week of development? Week 7
Pumps blood three weeks after fertilization Cardiac muscle
Surround skeletal muscle fibers Resemble undifferentiated myoblasts Fuse into existing muscle fibers to help them grow Satellite cells
Decrease in muscular strength is 50% by age 80
muscle wasting Sarcopenia
Created by: sl1512