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Enables resistance to crushing, tearing, and other forces Joints
Joints are categorized by what 2 features? Function and Structure
3 functional classifications of joints Synarthroses—immovable; common in axial skeleton Amphiarthroses—slightly movable; common in axial skeleton Diarthroses—freely movable; common in appendicular skeleton (all synovial joints)
3 structural classifications of joints Fibrous Cartilaginous Synovial
Immovable or slightly movable joints that do not have a joint cavity Fibrous Joints
3 types of fibrous joints Sutures Syndesmoses Gomphoses
Joints that only occur in the bones of the skull and allow bone growth so the skull can expand with the brain during childhood Sutures
closed sutures (fibrous tissue ossifies in middle age) Synostoses
Interosseous membrane between radius and ulna is a freely movable diarthrosis Interosseous membrane between radius and ulna is a freely movable diarthrosis
Tooth in a socket Connecting ligament—the periodontal ligament Gomphoses
Joints that lack a joint cavity Cartilaginous joints
2 types of cartilaginous joints Synchondroses and Symphyses
Is the joint between the first rib and sternum movable or immovable? immovable
Slightly movable joints that provide strength with flexibility Slightly movable joints that provide strength with flexibility
unites bones; resists tension and compression Fibrocartilage
Most movable type of joint All are diarthroses Each contains a fluid-filled joint cavity Synovial Joints
Absorbs compression Articular cartilage
Unique to synovial joints Space that holds a small amount of synovial fluid Joint cavity (synovial cavity)
joint cavity is enclosed in a two-layered capsule called Articular capsule
dense irregular connective tissue, which strengthens joint Fibrous capsule
Loose connective tissue Lines joint capsule and covers internal joint surfaces Functions to make synovial fluid Synovial membrane
A viscous fluid similar to raw egg white A filtrate of blood Arises from capillaries in synovial membrane Contains glycoprotein molecules secreted by fibroblasts Synovial fluid
Often are thickened parts of the fibrous capsule Sometimes are extracapsular ligaments—located outside the capsule Sometimes are intracapsular ligaments—located internal to the capsule Reinforcing ligaments
Look at slide 21 in PP CHAP-9 to see the Structure of a Synovial Joint Look at slide 21 in PP CHAP-9 to see the Structure of a Synovial Joint
Richly supplied with sensory nerves Detect pain Most monitor how much the capsule is being stretched Branches of several major nerves and blood vessels Have a rich blood supply Serve as lubricating devices Synovial Joints (function: Fluid is squeezed out as opposing cartilages touch and allows cartilage to ride on the slippery film)
Are bursae and tendon sheaths synovial joints? No, they are closed bags of lubricant that reduce friction between body elements
a flattened fibrous sac lined by a synovial membrane Bursa
an elongated bursa that wraps around a tendon Tendon sheath
3 basic types of movement 1) Gliding—one bone across the surface of another 2) Angular movement—movements change the angle between bones 3) Rotation—movement around a bone's long axis
Gliding occurs between: Carpals Articular processes of vertebrae Tarsals (Movements include: Flexion and extension Abduction and adduction Circumduction)
Abduction Away from the body ("b for bye")
Adduction Towards the body
What is the only movement allowed between the atlas and axis vertebrae? Rotation
Rotation away from the center of the body Lateral rotation
Rotation toward the center of the body Medial rotation
Moving a body part downward Depression (opening your mouth/moving your chin downwards)
Moving a body part upward Elevation (closing your mouth/moving your chip upward)
Movement anteriorly Protraction
Movement posteriorly Retraction
Forearm rotation laterally with palms facing anteriorly Supination (sup?)
Forearm rotation medially with palms facing posteriorly Pronation (brings radius across the ulna)
Moving thumb to touch the tips of other fingers Opposition
Turning your foot medially Inversion (inward)
Turning your foot laterally Eversion
Lifting the foot towards the shin Dorsiflexion
Depressing the foot; elevating the heel Plantarflexion
Shape classifications of Synovial Joints Plane Joint Hinge Joint Pivot Joint Condyloid Joint Saddle Joint Ball-and-socket Joint
Plane joint Articular surfaces are flat planes Short gliding movements are allowed Intertarsal and inter-carpal joints Movements are non-axial Gliding does not involve rotation around any axis
Hinge joints Cylindrical end of one bone fits into a trough on another bone Angular movement is allowed in one plane Elbow, ankle, and joints between phalanges Movement is uniaxial—allows movement around one axis only
Pivot Joint Classified as uniaxial – rotating bone only turns around its long axis Examples Proximal radioulnar joint Joint between atlas and axis
Condyloid Joint Allow moving bone to travel Side to side—abduction-adduction Back and forth—flexion-extension Classified as biaxial—movement occurs around two axes
Saddle Joint Each articular surface has concave and convex surfaces Classified as biaxial joints 1st carpometacarpal joint is a good example Allows opposition of the thumb
Ball-and-socket Joint Spherical head of one bone fits into round socket of another Classified as multiaxial—allow movement in all axes Shoulder and hip joints are examples
prevent excessive motions On the medial or inferior side of a joint – prevent excessive abduction Lateral or superiorly located—resist adduction Ligaments
resist extension and lateral rotation Anterior ligaments
resist flexion and medial rotation Posterior ligaments
Helps stabilize joints by keeping tension on tendons Is important in reinforcing: Shoulder and knee joints Supporting joints in arches of the foot Muscle tone
Is a saddle joint Four ligaments surround the joint Anterior and posterior sternoclavicular ligaments Interclavicular ligament Costoclavicular ligament Performs multiple complex movements Sternoclavicular joint
Is a modified hinge joint The head of the mandible articulates with the temporal bone Lateral excursion is a side-to-side movement of the mandible Temporomandibular Joint
The most freely movable joint, lacks stability Articular capsule is thin and loose Muscle tendons contribute to joint stability Shoulder (glenohumeral) joint
4 muscles of the rotator cuff 1) Subscapularis 2) Supraspinatus 3) Infraspinatus 4) Teres minor
Allows flexion and extension The humerus’ articulation with the trochlear notch of the ulna forms the hinge Tendons of biceps and triceps brachii provide stability Elbow joint
Stabilized by numerous ligaments Composed of radiocarpal and intercarpal joint Wrist
joint between the radius and proximal carpals (the scaphoid and lunate) Allows for flexion, extension, adduction, abduction, and circumduction Radiocarpal joint
joint between the proximal and distal rows or carpals Allows for gliding movement Intercarpal joint
A ball-and-socket structure Movements occur in all axes Limited by ligaments and acetabulum Head of femur articulates with acetabulum Stability comes chiefly from acetabulum and capsular ligaments Muscle tendons contribute somewhat to stability Hip joint
The largest and most complex joint Primarily acts as a hinge joint Has some capacity for rotation when leg is flexed Structurally considered compound and bicondyloid Two fibrocartilage menisci occur within the joint cavity Knee joint
shares the joint cavity Allows patella to glide across the distal femur Femoropatellar joint
Covers posterior and lateral aspects of the knee Covers tibial and femoral condyles Does not cover the anterior aspect of the knee Anteriorly covered by three ligaments Patellar ligament, Medial, and lateral patellar retinacula Capsule of the knee joint
Become taut when knee is extended Ligaments of the knee joint
extracapsular and capsular ligaments of the knee: A) Fibular and tibial collateral ligament, B) Oblique popliteal ligament, and C) Arcuate popliteal ligament
Ligaments that cross each other like an “X” Cruciate ligaments (Each cruciate ligament runs from the proximal tibia to the distal femur and prevent undesirable movements at the knee)
prevents anterior sliding of the tibia Anterior cruciate ligament
prevents forward sliding of the femur or backward displacement of the tibia Posterior cruciate ligament
"The Unhappy Triad" Lateral blows to the knee
A hinge joint between United inferior ends of tibia and fibula The talus of the foot Allows dorsiflexion and plantar flexion movements only Ankle Joint (medially and laterally stabilized by ligaments)
Disorders of Joints Structure of joints makes them prone to traumatic stress Function of joints makes them subject to friction and wear Affected by inflammatory and degenerative processes
Injuries of Joints Torn cartilage— common injury to meniscus of knee joint Sprains— ligaments of a reinforcing joint are stretched or torn Dislocation— occurs when the bones of a joint are forced out of alignment
inflammation of a bursa due to injury or friction Bursitis
inflammation of a tendon sheath Tendonitis
describes over 100 kinds of joint-damaging diseases Arthritis
most common type of “wear and tear” arthritis Osteoarthritis
Synovial joints develop from:
Joints resemble adult joints by which week of development? Week 8 (Outer region of mesenchyme becomes fibrous joint capsule Inner region becomes the joint cavity)
Created by: sl1512
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