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Append. Skeleton

QuestionAnswer
Attaches the upper limbs to the trunk Pectoral girdle
Attaches the lower limbs to the trunk Pelvic girdle
(Upper and lower limbs differ in function but share the same structural plan) (Upper and lower limbs differ in function but share the same structural plane)
Consists of the clavicle and the scapula Does not quite encircle the body completely Provides attachment for many muscles that move the upper limb Very light and upper limbs are mobile The Pectoral Girdle
Socket of the shoulder joint glenoid cavity (shallow;good for flexibility, bad for stability)
Look at slide 6 in CHAP-8 to see an illustration of the Articulated Pectoral Girdle Look at slide 6 in CHAP-8 to see an illustration of the Articulated Pectoral Girdle
Extend horizontally across the superior thorax Sternal end articulates (joins) with the manubrium Acromial end articulates with scapula Hold scapulae and arms laterally Transmit compression forces from the upper limbs to the axial skeleton Clavicles
Look at slide 6 in CHAP-8 to see an illustration of the Right Clavicle Look at slide 6 in CHAP-8 to see an illustration of the Right Clavicle
Lie on the dorsal surface of the rib cage Located between ribs 2–7 Scapulae
3 borders of the Scapulae Superior Medial (vertebral) Lateral (axillary)
3 angles of the Scapulae Lateral Superior Inferior
Look at slides 11-13 in CHAP-8 to see an illustration of the Scapulae Look at slides 11-13 in CHAP-8 to see an illustration of the Scapulae
How many bones form each upper limb? 30
3 groups of bones in the upper limb Arm Forearm Hand
The only longest and strongest bone of the upper limb Articulates with the scapula at the shoulder Articulates with the radius and ulna at the elbow Humerus
Look at slides 18 in CHAP-8 to see an illustration of the Humerus Look at slides 18 in CHAP-8 to see an illustration of the Humerus
Formed from the radius and ulna Proximal ends articulate with the humerus Distal ends articulate with carpals Forearm
Describe the radius and ulna in anatomical positions The radius is lateral and the ulna is medial
Interconnects radius and ulna The inter-osseous membrane
Where do the radius and ulna articulate (join)? At the proximal and distal radio-ulnar joints
Main bone responsible for forming the elbow joint with the humerus Hinge joint allows forearm to bend on arm Distal end is separated from carpals by fibrocartilage Plays little to no role in hand movement Ulna
Look at slides 22-23 in CHAP-8 to see an illustration of the Radius and Ulna Look at slides 22-23 in CHAP-8 to see an illustration of the Radius and Ulna
Superior surface of the head articulates with the capitulum Medial part of the head articulates with the radial notch of the ulna Distal part articulates with carpal bones Contributes heavily to the wrist joint Radius
Look at slides 25 in CHAP-8 to see an illustration of the Distal Ends of the Radius and Ulna Look at slides 25 in CHAP-8 to see an illustration of the Distal Ends of the Radius and Ulna
Bones of the Hand Carpus—wrist Metacarpals—palm Phalanges—fingers
Forms the true wrist—the proximal region of the hand Gliding movements occur between carpals Composed of eight marble-sized bones Carpus
2 irregular rows of the Carpus Proximal row from lateral to medial Scaphoid, lunate, triquetral, and pisiform Distal row from lateral to medial Trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, and hamate A mnemonic to help remember carpals: Sally left the party to take Carmen home
Look at slide 29 in CHAP-8 to see an illustration of the Bones of the Hand Look at slide 29 in CHAP-8 to see an illustration of the Bones of the Hand
radiate distally from the wrist Metacarpus
Articulate proximally with the distal row of carpals Articulate distally with the proximal phalanges Metacarpals (palm) (Numbered 1–5, beginning with the pollex (thumb))
Fingers Phalanges (Numbered 1–5, beginning with the pollex (thumb))
How many phalanges does each finger have? What are their names? Except for the thumb, each finger has three phalanges (named proximal, middle, and distal)
Look at slide 32 in CHAP-8 to see an illustration of the Bones of the Upper Limb Look at slide 32 in CHAP-8 to see an illustration of the Bones of the Upper Limb
Attaches lower limbs to the spine Supports visceral organs Attaches to the axial skeleton by strong ligaments Consists of paired hip bones (coxal bones) united anteriorly Articulates posteriorly with the sacrum Pelvic Girdle
A deep hemispherical socket on lateral pelvic surface (deep cup that holds the head of the femur) Acetabulum
A deep, basin-like structure Formed by: Coxal bones, sacrum, and coccyx Pelvic Girdle
Look at slide 36 in CHAP-8 to see an illustration of the Bones of the Pelvic Girdle Look at slide 36 in CHAP-8 to see an illustration of the Bones of the Pelvic Girdle
Which three separate bones does the Pelvic Girdle consist of in childhood? Ilium, ischium, and pubis
Large, flaring bone Forms the superior region of the coxal bone Articulation with the sacrum forms sacroiliac joint Ilium
Forms postero-inferior region of the coxal bone Anteriorly joins the pubis Ischium
strongest part of the hip bone Ischial tuberosities
Forms the anterior region of the coxal bone Lies horizontally in anatomical position Pubis
Fibrocartilage at the midline joining the two pubic bones Pubic symphysis
Angle inferior to the pubic symphysis that helps to distinguish male from female pelves Pubic arch
Look at slide 41 in CHAP-8 to see an illustration of the Hip Bone Look at slide 41 in CHAP-8 to see an illustration of the Hip Bone
2 regions of the pelvis False (greater) pelvis—bounded by alae of the iliac bones True (lesser) pelvis—inferior to pelvic brim and forms a bowl containing the pelvic organs
Look at slide 43 in CHAP-8 to see an illustration of True vs. False Pelves Look at slide 43 in CHAP-8 to see an illustration of True vs. False Pelves
What are the major differences between male and female pelves? Female pelvis is adapted for childbearing Pelvis is lighter, wider, and shallower than in the male Provides more room in the true pelvis
Look at slide 45-46 in CHAP-8 to see an illustration of Female vs. Male Pelves Look at slide 45-46 in CHAP-8 to see an illustration of Female vs. Male Pelves
Thicker, stronger limb that carries the entire weight of the erect body The Lower Limb
3 segments of the lower limb Thigh, leg, and foot
The region of the lower limb between the hip and the knee Thigh
The single bone of the thigh Longest and strongest bone of the body Ball-shaped head articulates with the acetabulum Femur
Look at slide 49 in CHAP-8 to see an illustration of the Femur Look at slide 49 in CHAP-8 to see an illustration of the Femur
Triangular sesamoid bone Imbedded in the tendon that secures the quadriceps muscles Protects the knee anteriorly Improves leverage of the thigh muscles across the knee Patella
Refers to the region of the lower limb between the knee and the ankle Composed of the tibia and fibula Leg
more massive medial bone of the leg Receives weight of the body from the femur Tibia
stick-like lateral bone of the leg Fibula
Connects the tibia and fibula Interosseous membrane
Articulation that forms the knee joint Tibia articulates with femur at superior end
Articulation that forms the ankle joint Tibia articulates with talus at the inferior end
Fibula does not contribute to the knee joint but does stabilize the ankle joint Fibula does not contribute to the knee joint but does stabilize the ankle joint
Look at slides 53-54 in CHAP-8 to see an illustration of the Tibia and Fibula Look at slides 53-54 in CHAP-8 to see an illustration of the Tibia and Fibula
composed of: Tarsus, metatarsus, and the phalanges The Foot
Supports body weight Acts as a lever to propel body forward when walking Segmentation makes pliable and adapted to uneven ground The Foot
Makes up the posterior half of the foot Contains seven bones called tarsals Tarsus
Site of articulation of tarsus with the tibia Trochlea of the talus
Cuboid, navicular, medial, intermediate, and lateral cuneiforms are examples of: Tarsals
Consists of five small long bones called metatarsals Numbered 1–5 beginning with the hallux (great toe) First metatarsal supports body weight Metatarsus
Compare phalanges of the toes with phalanges of the fingers: Phalanges of the toes are smaller and less nimble than those of the fingers
How many phalanges are in the toe? 14 (3 in each toe except for 2 in the big toe)
Look at slides 59-61 in CHAP-8 to see an illustration of the Bones of the Foot Look at slides 59-61 in CHAP-8 to see an illustration of the Bones of the Foot
3 arches of the foot Medial longitudinal arch Lateral longitudinal arch Transverse arch
How are arches in the foot maintained? Interlocking shapes of tarsals Ligaments and tendons “Keystones”
What is the keystone in the medial longitudinal arch called? Talus
What is the keystone in the lateral longitudinal arch called? Cuboid
Look at slides 63-64 in CHAP-8 to see an illustration of the Arches of the Foot Look at slides 63-64 in CHAP-8 to see an illustration of the Arches of the Foot
Disorder where the head of the femur slips out of acetabulum Hip dysplasia
Disorder where soles of the feet turn medially Clubfoot
Growth of which skeleton increases height and changes body proportions? The Appendicular Skeleton
At birth, head and trunk are 1.5 times as long as lower limbs Lower limbs grow faster than the trunk Upper/lower body ratio of 1 to 1 by age 10 At birth, head and trunk are 1.5 times as long as lower limbs Lower limbs grow faster than the trunk Upper/lower body ratio of 1 to 1 by age 10
Few changes occur in adult skeleton until middle age, when the skeleton loses mass and osteoporosis and limb fractures become more common Few changes occur in adult skeleton until middle age, when the skeleton loses mass and osteoporosis and limb fractures become more common
Created by: sl1512