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Axial Skeleton

QuestionAnswer
Consists of: Bones, cartilage, joints, and ligaments The Skeleton
How many bones are in the Axial Skeleton? 80
How many bones are in the Appendicular Skeleton? 126
The Axial Skeleton consists of: the skull, vertebral column, and bony thorax
Look at slide 3-4 in PP CHAP-7 to see a diagram of the Axial Skeleton Look at slide 3-4 in PP CHAP-7 to see a diagram of the Axial Skeleton
Formed by cranial and facial bones The Skull
Look at slide 5 in PP CHAP-7 to see a diagram of the Skull Look at slide 5 in PP CHAP-7 to see a diagram of the Skull
Encloses and protects brain Provides attachment for head and neck muscles Is the body’s the most complex bony structure The Cranium
Look at slide 6 in PP CHAP-7 to see a diagram of the Cranium Look at slide 6 in PP CHAP-7 to see a diagram of the Cranium
Form framework of the face Form cavities for the sense organs of sight, taste, and smell Provide openings for the passage of air and food Hold the teeth in place Anchor muscles of the face Facial Bones
2 divisions of the Cranium cranial vault and the base
Internally, prominent bony ridges divide skull into: distinct fossae
How many named openings does the skull contain? (eg Foramina, canals, and fissures) 85
What is the purpose of Skull openings? Provide openings for important structures Spinal cord Blood vessels serving the brain 12 pairs of cranial nerves
The Cranium is formed from how many large bones? 8
Paired bones of the Cranium Temporal bones Parietal bones
Unpaired bones of the Cranium Frontal bone Occipital bone Sphenoid bone Ethmoid bone
form superior and lateral parts of skull Parietal bones
Four sutures of the cranium Coronal-where parietal bones meet the frontal bone Squamous—where each parietal bone meets a temporal bone inferiorly Sagittal—where right and left parietal bones meet superiorly Lambdoid-where parietal bones meet the occipital bone posteriorly
Small bones that occur within sutures Irregular in shape, size, and location Sutural Bones (note: Not all people have sutural bones)
Look at slide 16 in PP CHAP-7 to see a Posterior View of the Skull Look at slide 16 in PP CHAP-7 to see a Posterior View of the Skull
Forms the forehead and roofs of orbits Frontal Bone
superior margin of orbits Supraorbital margin
smooth part of frontal bone between superciliary arches (Frontal sinuses within frontal bone) Glabella (Contributes to anterior cranial fossa)
Forms the posterior portion of the cranium and cranial base Articulates with the temporal bones and parietal bones Forms the posterior cranial fossa Foramen magnum located at its base Occipital Bone
Features and Structures of the Occipital Bone Occipital condyles Hypoglossal foramen External occipital protuberance Superior nuchal lines Inferior nuchal lines
Look at slide 20 in PP CHAP-7 to see an Inferior View of the Skull Look at slide 20 in PP CHAP-7 to see an Inferior View of the Skull
Lie inferior to parietal bones Form the inferolateral portion of the skull Term comes from Latin word for time Temporal Bones
Regions of Temporal Bones Squamous, temporal, petrous, and mastoid regions
Look at slide 20 in PP CHAP-7 to see a Lateral View of the Skull Look at slide 20 in PP CHAP-7 to see a Lateral View of the Skull
Look at slide 21 in PP CHAP-7 to see an illustration of The Temporal Bone Look at slide 21 in PP CHAP-7 to see an illustration of The Temporal Bone
Site for neck muscle attachment Contains air sinuses The mastoid process
Projects medially, contributes to cranial base Houses cavities of middle and internal ear Contributes to the middle and posterior cranial fossae Petrous region
smallest and lightest vertebrae Seven cervical vertebrae (C1–C7)
typical cervical vertebrae C3–C7
Body is wider laterally Spinous processes are short and bifid (except C7) Vertebral foramen are large and triangular Transverse processes contain transverse foramina Superior articular facets face superoposteriorly Typical Vertebrae (C3–C7)
Look at slide 27 in PP CHAP-7 to see an illustration of Cervical Vertebrae Look at slide 27 in PP CHAP-7 to see an illustration of Cervical Vertebrae
C1: Lacks a body and spinous process Supports the skull Superior articular facets receive the occipital condyles Allows flexion and extension of neck Nodding the head “yes” The Atlas
Look at slide 29-30 in PP CHAP-7 to see an illustration of The Atlas Look at slide 29-30 in PP CHAP-7 to see an illustration of The Atlas
Has a body and spinous process The Axis
projects superiorly Formed from fusion of the body of the atlas with the axis Acts as a pivot for rotation of the atlas and skull Participates in rotating the head from side to side Dens (odontoid process)
Look at slide 32 in PP CHAP-7 to see where the Dens is located Look at slide 32 in PP CHAP-7 to see where the Dens is located
All articulate with ribs Have heart-shaped bodies from the superior view Thoracic Vertebrae (T1—T12)
bears demifacts for articulation with ribs on each side of body T1–T10
has a full facet for the first rib T1
only have a single facet T10–T12
articular facets pointing posteriorly Superior articular facets
articular processes pointing anteriorly Inferior articular processes (Allows rotation and prevents flexion and extension)
Bodies are thick Transverse processes are thin and tapered Spinous processes are thick, and point posteriorly Triangular Vertebral foramina Superior and inferior articular facets directly medially Allows flexion and extension—rotation prevented Lumbar Vertebrae (L1—L5)
Look at slide 40 in PP CHAP-7 to see an illustration of Lumbar Vertebrae Look at slide 40 in PP CHAP-7 to see an illustration of Lumbar Vertebrae
Shapes the posterior wall of pelvis Formed from 5 fused vertebrae Superior surface articulates with L5 Inferiorly articulates with coccyx Sacrum (S1—S5)
Where the first sacral vertebrae bulges into pelvic cavity Sacral promontory
How far is the center of gravity posterior to sacral promontory 1cm
develops from fused rib elements Ala
2 parts of Sacral foramina Ventral foramina Passage for ventral rami of sacral spinal nerves Dorsal foramina Passage for dorsal rami of sacral spinal nerves
Is the “tailbone” Formed from 3—5 fused vertebrae Offers only slight support to pelvic organs Coccyx
Forms the framework of the chest Protects thoracic organs Supports shoulder girdle and upper limbs Provides attachment sites for muscles The Thoracic Cage
Components of The Thoracic Cage Thoracic vertebrae—posteriorly Ribs—laterally Sternum and costal cartilage—anteriorly
Look at slide 47 in PP CHAP-7 to see an illustration of The Thoracic Cage Look at slide 47 in PP CHAP-7 to see an illustration of The Thoracic Cage
3 sections of The Sternum Manubrium—superior section Articulates with medial end of clavicles Body—bulk of sternum Sides are notched at articulations for costal cartilage of ribs 2–7 Xiphoid process—inferior end of sternum Ossifies around age 40
Central indentation at superior border of the manubrium Jugular notch
A horizontal ridge where the manubrium joins the body Sternal angle
Where sternal body and xiphoid process fuse Lies at the level of the 9th thoracic vertebra Xiphisternal joint
All ribs attach to vertebral column: posterior or anterior? posterior
superior seven pairs of ribs Attach to sternum by costal cartilage True ribs
inferior five pairs of ribs False ribs
Ribs 11–12 are known as: floating ribs
A common congenital disorder Right and left halves of palate fail to fuse medially Cleft palate
Narrowing of the vertebral canal Can compress roots of spinal nerves Stenosis of the lumbar spine
an abnormal lateral curvature Scoliosis
an exaggerated thoracic curvature Kyphosis
an accentuated lumbar curvature; “swayback” Lordosis
Unossified remnants of membranes Fontanels
Many bones of the face and skull form by: intramembranous ossification
Endochondral bones of the skull Occipital bone Sphenoid Ethmoid bones Parts of the temporal bone
Created by: sl1512