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Bones/Skeletal Tiss.

QuestionAnswer
Cartilage is surrounded by: periochondrium
What does cartilage consist primarily of? Water
Type of tissue that springs back to its original shape Resilient tissue (e.g. Cartilage)
3 types of Cartilage Hyaline cartilage (glassy) Most abundant Support through flexibility Elastic cartilage—many elastic fibers tolerates repeated bending Fibrocartilage—resists strong compression and strong tension intermediate between hyaline and elastic cartilage
2 types of growth in Cartilage Appositional growth Chondroblasts in surrounding perichondrium produce new cartilage Interstitial growth Chondrocytes within cartilage divide and secrete new matrix (Cartilage stops growing when the skeleton stops growing)
Types of tissues contained in Bones Dominated by bone CT Contain nervous tissue and blood CT Contain cartilage in articular cartilages Contain ET lining blood vessels
Functions of Bones Support—provides hard framework Movement—skeletal muscles use bones as levers Protection of organs Mineral storage—reservoir for important minerals Blood-cell formation—contains red marrow Energy Metabolism—osteoblasts secrete osteocalcin
2 components of Bone tissue Organic components—cells, fibers, and ground substance Inorganic components—mineral salts that invade bony matrix
Composition of Extracellular Matrix that gives bones their exceptional properties: (percentage of organic components vs. percentage of inorganic components) 35%—organic components Contributes to flexibility and tensile strength 65%—inorganic components Provide exceptional harness, resists compression
3 types of cells in bones that produce/maintain bones Osteogenic cells—stem cells that differentiate into osteoblasts Osteoblasts—actively produce and secrete bone matrix Bone matrix is osteoid Osteocytes—keep bone matrix healthy
Responsible for resorption of bone Are derived from a line of white blood cells Secrete hydrochloric acid and lysosomal enzymes Osteoclasts
Classifications of Bones Long bones—longer than wide; a shaft plus ends Short bones—roughly cube-shaped Flat bones—thin and flattened, usually curved Irregular bones—various shapes, do not fit into other categories
Look at slide 15 in PP CHAP-6 to see what the Classification of Bones look like Look at slide 15 in PP CHAP-6 to see what the Classification of Bones look like
2 parts of the gross anatomy of Bones Compact bone—dense outer layer of bone Spongy (cancellous) bone—internal network of bone
Diaphysis—“shaft” of a bone Epiphysis—ends of a bone Blood vessels—well vascularized Medullary cavity—hollow cavity filled with yellow marrow Membranes Periosteum, perforating fibers (Sharpey’s fibers), and endosteum Structure of a Typical Long Bone
Look at slide 18 in PP CHAP-6 to see what the Structure of a Long Bone looks like Look at slide 18 in PP CHAP-6 to see what the Structure of a Long Bone looks like
Where in a bone is the compression and tension greatest? At the external surfaces
3 broad categories of bone markings Projections for muscle attachment Surfaces that form joints Depressions and openings
Look at slide 21 in PP CHAP-6 to see what the Bone Markings looks like Look at slide 21 in PP CHAP-6 to see what the Bone Markings looks like
Contains passage ways for blood vessels, lymph vessels, and nerves Compact Bones
long cylindrical structures Function in support Structurally—resembles rings of a tree in cross-section Osteons
Contain: Lamellae Central canal Perforating canals Canaliculi Osteons
Look at slide 25 in PP CHAP-6 to see what the Microscopic Structure of a Compact Bone looks like Look at slide 25 in PP CHAP-6 to see what the Microscopic Structure of a Compact Bone looks like
Which type of bone is less complex? Spongy Bone or Compact Bone? Spongy Bone (also called Cancellous Bone) (also called Trabeculae Bone)
Which type of bone is too small to contain osteons? Spongy Bone or Compact Bone? Spongy Bone
Ossification bone-tissue formation (osteogenesis)
Membrane bones are formed directly from: Mesenchyme (Intramembranous ossification)
Bones other than membrane bones develop initially from: Hyaline cartilage (Endochondral ossification)
Look at slide 29 in PP CHAP-6 to see what Intramembranous Ossification looks like Look at slide 29 in PP CHAP-6 to see what Intramembranous Ossification looks like
Happens in all bones except some bones of the skull and clavicles Bones are modeled in hyaline cartilage Begins forming late in the second month of embryonic development Continues forming until early adulthood Endochondral Ossification
Look at slide 29 in PP CHAP-6 to see what Endochondral Ossification looks like Look at slide 29 in PP CHAP-6 to see what Endochondral Ossification looks like
Cartilage is organized for quick, efficient growth Cartilage cells form tall stacks Chondroblasts divide quickly Pushes epiphysis away from diaphysis Lengthens long bone Older chondrocytes signal surrounding matrix to calcify Epiphyseal Growth in Epiphyseal Plates
Leaves long trabeculae (spicules) of calcified cartilage on diaphysis side Trabeculae are partly eroded by osteoclasts Osteoblasts then cover trabeculae with bone tissue Trabeculae finally eaten away from their tips by osteoclasts death and disintegration of older Chondrocytes
Look at slide 35 in PP CHAP-6 to see what the organization of cartilage in the epiphyseal plate looks like Look at slide 35 in PP CHAP-6 to see what the organization of cartilage in the epiphyseal plate looks like
During childhood and adolescence: Bones lengthen entirely by growth of the epiphyseal plates Cartilage is replaced with bone CT as quickly as it grows Epiphyseal plate maintains constant thickness Whole bone lengthens Postnatal Growth of Endochondral Bones
Hormone produced by the pituitary gland Stimulates epiphyseal plates Growth Hormone
Hormone that ensures that the skeleton retains proper proportions Thyroid Hormone
Hormone that promotes bone growth Later induces closure of epiphyseal plates Sex Hormones (estrogen & testosterone)
When does the following occure? Chondroblasts divide less often Epiphyseal plates become thinner Cartilage stops growing Replaced by bone tissue Long bones stop lengthening when diaphysis and epiphysis fuse As adolescence draws to an end
How much calcium may enter or leave the adult skeleton each day? ~500mg
How often is cancellous bone replaced? ~3-4years
How often is compact bone replaced? ~10years
add bone tissue to the external surface of the diaphysis Osteoblasts
remove bone from the internal surface of the diaphysis Osteoclasts
growth of a bone by addition of bone tissue to its surface Appositional growth
Where does bone deposit and removal occur? at periosteal and endosteal surfaces
Bone remodeling accomplished by osteoblasts Bone deposition
Bone remodeling accomplished by osteoclasts Bone reabsorption
A giant cell with many nuclei Crawls along bone surfaces Breaks down bone tissue Secretes concentrated HCl Lysosomal enzymes are released Derived from hematopoietic stem cells Osteoclast
2 types of reduction treatment to repair bone fractures Open reduction Closed reduction
Look at slide 45 in PP CHAP-6 to see the stages of a healing fracture Look at slide 45 in PP CHAP-6 to see the stages of a healing fracture
Look at slide 46-48 in PP CHAP-6 to see the common types of fractures Look at slide 46-48 in PP CHAP-6 to see the common types of fractures
Characterized by low bone mass Bone reabsorption outpaces bone deposition Occurs most often in women after menopause Osteoporosis
Look at slide 50 in PP CHAP-6 to see what an osteoporotic bone looks like compared to a normal bone Look at slide 50 in PP CHAP-6 to see what an osteoporotic bone looks like compared to a normal bone
Occurs in adults—bones are inadequately mineralized Osteomalacia
Occurs in children—analogous to osteomalacia Rickets
Characterized by excessive rate of bone deposition Paget’s disease
A form of bone cancer Osteosarcoma
Mesoderm Gives rise to embryonic mesenchyme cells Mesenchyme Produces membranes and cartilage Membranes and cartilage ossify Overview of the timetable of Bones
Bone formation exceeds the rate of bone reabsorption in: children and adolescents
Bone formation and bone reabsorption are in balance in: young adults
reabsorption predominates in: old age
Created by: sl1512