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Integumentary System

Largest organ Accounts for 7% of body weight Varies in thickness from 1.5–4.4mm Divided into two distinct layers Epidermis Dermis The Skin
lies deep to the dermis Hypodermis
What are the functions of the Skin and Hypodermis? Protection— from bumps, chemicals, water loss, UV radiation Regulation of body temperature Excretion— urea, salts, and water lost through sweat Production of vitamin D Sensory reception—keeps us aware of conditions at the body’s surface
4 main cell types of Epidermis Keratinocytes -tratum spinosum; produce keratin a fibrous protein Melanocytes-basal layer; secrete pigment Tactile epithelial cells-basal layer; attached to sensory nerve endings Dendritic cells-stratum spinosum; part of immune system; macrophage-like
most abundant cell type in epidermis Arise from deepest layer of epidermis Produce keratin, a tough fibrous protein Produce antibodies and enzymes Dead at skin's surface Keratinocytes
5 Layers of the Epidermis A) Stratum basale (stratum geminativum) B) Stratum spinosum C) Stratum granulosum D) Stratum lucidum (only in thick skin) E) Stratum corneum
Deepest layer of epidermis Attached to underlying dermis Cells actively divide Stratum basale contains Merkel cells—associated with sensory nerve ending Melanocytes—secrete the pigment melanin A) Stratum basale
“Spiny” appearance caused by artifacts of histological preparation Contains thick bundles of intermediate filaments (tonofilaments) Resist tension Contain protein prekeratin and star-shaped dendritic cells Function in immune system (as macrophages) B) Stratum spinosum (spiny layer)
Consists of keratinocytes and tonofilaments Tonofilaments contain: Keratohyaline granules—help form keratin Lamellated granules—contain a waterproofing glycolipid C) Stratum granulosum
Occurs only in thick skin Locations of thick skin—palms and soles Composed of a few rows of flat, dead keratinocytes D) Stratum lucidum (clear layer)
Thick layer of dead keratinocytes and thickened plasma membranes Protects skin against abrasion and penetration E) Stratum corneum (horny layer)
Second major layer of the skin Strong, flexible connective tissue Richly supplied with blood vessels and nerves Dermis
2 layers of the dermis Papillary layer—includes dermal papillae Reticular layer Deeper layer—80% of thickness of dermis
Creases on palms are called: Flexure lines
Deep to the skin—also called superficial fascia Contains areolar and adipose CT Anchors skin to underlying structures Helps insulate the body Hypodermis
3 pigments that contribute to skin color: i) Melanin Most important pigment—made from tyrosine ii) Carotene Yellowish pigment from carrots and tomatoes iii) Hemoglobin Caucasian skin contains little melanin Allows crimson color of blood to show through
scalelike modification of epidermis Made of hard keratin Nails
Parts of The Nail Free edge Body Root Nail folds Eponychium—cuticle
Flexible strand of dead, keratinized cells Hard keratin—tough and durable Hair
2 Parts of Hair Root—imbedded in the skin Shaft—projects above skin's surface
3 layers of Hair i) Medulla—central core ii) Cortex—surrounds medulla iii) Cuticle—outermost layer
Extend from epidermis into dermis Hair follicles
Deep, expanded end of the hair follicle Hair bulb
Knot of sensory nerves around hair bulb Root plexus
Bundle of smooth muscle Hair stands erect when this contracts Arrector pili muscle
Body hairs of women and children Vellus hairs
Hair of scalp Axillary and pubic area (at puberty) Terminal hairs
Occur over entire body Except palms and soles Secrete sebum—an oily substance Sebaceous Glands
entire cell breaks up to form secretion Most are associated with a hair follicle Holocrine secretion
Functions of sebum Collects dirt; softens and lubricates hair and skin
glands (sudoriferous glands) widely distributed on body Sweat glands
a blood filtrate 99% water with some salts Contains traces of metabolic wastes About 2% urea Sweat
2 types of sweat glands Eccrine gland (merocrine) Most numerous—produce true sweat Apocrine gland Confined to axillary, anal, and genital areas Musky odor-attracts mate Signal about immune system, MHC (Ceruminous glands and mammary glands are modified apocrine glands)
only upper epidermis is damaged from burns First-degree burn
upper epidermis and upper part of dermis is also damaged from burns Second-degree burn (Blisters appear Skin heals with little scarring)
Consumes thickness of skin Burned area appears white, red, or blackened Third-degree burn
Least malignant and most common skin cancer Basal cell carcinoma
Skin cancer that arises from keratinocytes of stratum spinosum Squamous cell carcinoma
A cancer of melanocytes The most dangerous type of skin cancer Melanoma
Develops from embryonic ectoderm Epidermis
Develop from mesoderm Dermis and hypodermis
Develop from neural crest cells Melanocytes
vernix caseosa produced by Fetal sebaceous glands
Fetal skin is well formed after the fourth month. At 5–6 months, the fetus is covered with lanugo (downy hairs) Fetal skin is well formed after the fourth month. At 5–6 months, the fetus is covered with lanugo (downy hairs)
Created by: sl1512