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Provides: Covering Protection Diffusion Absorption, secretion, and ion transport Filtration Forms slippery surfaces Forms parts of most glands Epithelial tissue
Provide support Connective tissue
Provide movement Muscle tissue
Provide control Nervous tissue
Epithelia cell regions of the apical surface differ from the basal surface Polarity
Cells joined by special junctions Specialized contacts
Cells separated by minimal extracellular material Cellularity
Epithelia layer is avascular but innervated and receives nutrients from underlying connective tissue Epithelia layer is avascular but innervated and receives nutrients from underlying connective tissue
Regeneration Lost cells are quickly replaced by cell division
one layer of cells Simple (note:First name of tissue indicates number of cell layers and Last name of tissue describes shape of cells)
more than one layer of cells Stratified (note:First name of tissue indicates number of cell layers and Last name of tissue describes shape of cells)
cells are wider than tall (plate-like) Squamous
cells are as wide as tall, like cubes Cuboidal
cells are taller than they are wide, like columns Columnar
single layer; flat cells with disc-shaped nuclei Simple Squamous Epithelium
Look at slide 10 in PP CHAP-4 to see Classifications of Epithelia (e.g. Simple, Stratified, Squamous etc.) Look at slide 10 in PP CHAP-4 to see Classifications of Epithelia (e.g. Simple, Stratified, Squamous etc.)
Simple Squamous Epithelium Functions Passage of materials by passive diffusion and filtration Secretes lubricating substances in serosae
Simple Squamous Epithelium Locations Renal corpuscles Alveoli of lungs Lining of heart, blood, and lymphatic vessels Lining of ventral body cavity (serosae)
Single layer of cubelike cells with large, spherical central nuclei Simple Cuboidal Epithelium
Simple Cuboidal Epithelium Functions Secretion and absorption
Simple Cuboidal Epithelium Locations Kidney tubules, secretory portions of small glands, ovary surface
single layer of column-shaped (rectangular) cells with oval nuclei Some bear cilia at their apical surface May contain goblet cells Simple Columnar Epithelium
Simple Columnar Epithelium Functions Absorption; secretion of mucus, enzymes, and other substances Ciliated type propels mucus or reproductive cells by ciliary action
Simple Columnar Epithelium Locations Nonciliated form Lines digestive tract, gallbladder, ducts of some glands Ciliated form Lines small bronchi, uterine tubes, and uterus
All cells originate at basement membrane Only tall cells reach the apical surface May contain goblet cells and bear cilia Nuclei lie at varying heights within cells Gives false impression of stratification Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium
Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium Functions secretion of mucus; propulsion of mucus by cilia
Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium Locations Nonciliated type Ducts of male reproductive tubes Ducts of large glands Ciliated variety Lines trachea and most of upper respiratory tract
Many layers of cells are squamous in shape Deeper layers of cells appear cuboidal or columnar Thickest epithelial tissue Adapted for protection from abrasion Stratified Squamous Epithelium
Two Types of Stratified Squamous Epithelium Keratinized Location—epidermis Contains the protective protein keratin Waterproof Surface cells are dead and full of keratin Non-keratinized Forms moist lining of body openings
Stratified Squamous Epithelium Functions Protects underlying tissues in areas subject to abrasion
Stratified Squamous Epithelium Locations Keratinized—forms epidermis Nonkeratinized—forms lining of mucous membranes Esophagus Mouth Anus Vagina Urethra
generally two layers of cube-shaped cells Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium
Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium Functions protection
Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium Locations Forms ducts of Mammary glands Salivary glands Largest sweat glands
several layers; basal cells usually cuboidal; superficial cells elongated Stratified Columnar Epithelium
Stratified Columnar Epithelium Functions protection and secretion
Stratified Columnar Epithelium Locations Rare tissue type Found in male urethra and large ducts of some glands
Has characteristics of stratified cuboidal and stratified squamous Superficial cells dome-shaped when bladder is relaxed, squamous when full Transitional Epithelium
Transitional Epithelium Functions permits distension of urinary organs by contained urine
Transitional Epithelium Locations epithelium of urinary bladder, ureters, proximal urethra
Ductless glands that secrete directly into surrounding tissue fluid Produce messenger molecules called hormones Endocrine glands
carry products of exocrine glands to epithelial surface including the following diverse glands Mucus-secreting glands Sweat and oil glands Salivary glands Liver and pancreas Ducts
unicellular exocrine glands that produces mucin Goblet Cells
Mucin + water = mucus
Protects and lubricates many internal body surfaces Also play as buffering system Goblet Cells
Have two basic parts Epithelium-walled duct Secretory unit Multicellular Exocrine Glands
Two classifications of multicellular exocrine glands by their type of duct Simple Compound
Three categories of multicellular exocrine glands by their type of secretory unit Tubular Alveolar Tubulo-alveolar
Look at slide 42 in PP CHAP-4 to see Types of Multicellular Exocrine Glands Look at slide 42 in PP CHAP-4 to see Types of Multicellular Exocrine Glands
Three factors binding epithelial cells together Adhesion proteins link plasma membranes of adjacent cells Contours of adjacent cell membranes Special cell junctions
close off intercellular space Tight junctions (zona occludens)
Where are tight junctions found? apical region of most epithelial tissues types
What do tight junctions do? Prevent certain molecules from passing between cells of epithelial tissue (intercellular space)
Look at slide 45 in PP CHAP-4 to see what Tight Junctions look like Look at slide 45 in PP CHAP-4 to see what Tight Junctions look like
anchoring junction Adhesive belt junctions (zonula adherens)
attach to actin microfilaments of the cytoskeleton and bind adjacent cells Transmembrane linker proteins
Along with tight junctions, these linker proteins form the tight junctional complex around apical lateral borders of epithelial tissues Transmembrane linker proteins
main junctions for binding cells together Scattered along abutting sides of adjacent cells Cytoplasmic side of each plasma membrane has a plaque Desmosomes
What are plaques joined by? Linker Proteins
Intermediate filaments extend across the cytoplasm and anchor at desmosomes on opposite side of the cell and are common in cardiac muscles and epithelial tissue Intermediate filaments extend across the cytoplasm and anchor at desmosomes on opposite side of the cell and are common in cardiac muscles and epithelial tissue
Look at slide 49 in PP CHAP-4 to see what a Desmosome looks like Look at slide 49 in PP CHAP-4 to see what a Desmosome looks like
passageway between two adjacent cells to allow ions and small molecules to pass from one cell to the next for intercellular communication. Gap junctions
What do Gap junctions do? let small molecules move directly between neighboring cells
What are cells connected by along gap junctions? hollow cylinders of protein
What is the function of gap junctions? intercellular communication
Look at slide 51 in PP CHAP-4 to see what a Gap Junction looks like Look at slide 51 in PP CHAP-4 to see what a Gap Junction looks like
Noncellular supporting sheet between the ET and the CT deep to it Consists of proteins secreted by ET cells The Basal Lamina
What is the function of the basal lamina? Acts as a selective filter, determining which molecules from capillaries enter the epithelium Acts as scaffolding along which regenerating ET cells can migrate
What do the basal lamina and reticular layers of the underlying CT deep to it form? the basement membrane
fingerlike extensions of plasma membrane Microvilli (Abundant in ET of small intestine and kidney Maximize surface area across which small molecules enter or leave Act as stiff knobs that resist abrasion)
whiplike, highly motile extensions of apical surface membranes Cilia
contains a core of nine pairs of microtubules encircling one middle pair The apical surface
a set of microtubules Axoneme
Movement of cilia can be described as: coordinated waves
Look at slide 56 in PP CHAP-4 to see what a cilium looks like Look at slide 56 in PP CHAP-4 to see what a cilium looks like
Main Classes of Connective Tissue (Most diverse and abundant tissue) Connective tissue proper Cartilage Bone tissue Blood
Cells in connective tissue are seperated by: a large amount of extracellular matrix
What is the common embryonic origin of connective tissues? mesenchyme
Make protein subunits Secrete molecules that form the ground substance Fibroblasts
secrete matrix in cartilage Chondroblasts
secrete matrix in bone Osteoblasts
Blood is an exception when it comes to connective tissue in that it does not: produce matrix
Areolar connective tissue contain Fat cells White blood cells Mast cells
3 types of fibers in extracellular matrix Collagen fibers—strongest; resist tension Reticular fibers—bundles of special type of collagen Cover and support structures Elastic fibers—contain elastin Recoil after stretching
Is produced by primary cell type of the tissue Is usually gel-like Cushions and protects body structures Holds tissue fluid Blood is an exception Plasma is not produced by blood cells Ground Substance
Two subclasses of Connective Tissue Proper Loose connective tissue Areolar, adipose, and reticular Dense connective tissue Dense irregular, dense regular, and elastic
Look at slide 67 in PP CHAP-4 to see a chart of the classes of connective tissue Look at slide 67 in PP CHAP-4 to see a chart of the classes of connective tissue
Underlies epithelial tissue Surrounds small nerves and blood vessels Has structures and functions shared by other CT Borders all other tissues in the body Areolar connective tissue
Support and binding of other tissues Holding body fluids (interstitial fluid  lymph) Defending body against infection Storing nutrients as fat Areolar connective tissue
Fibers are produced by: Fibroblasts
Gel-like matrix with all three fiber types and other connective tissue (contains Fibroblasts, macrophages, mast cells, and white blood cells) Areolar Connective Tissue
What is the function of Areolar Connective Tissue? Wraps and cushions organs Holds and conveys tissue fluid (interstitial fluid) Important role in inflammation
Where is Areolar Connective Tissue located? Widely distributed under epithelia Packages organs Surrounds capillaries
Watery fluid occupying extracellular matrix Derived from blood Tissue fluid (interstitial fluid)
Viscous, spongy part of extracellular matrix Consists of sugar and protein molecules Made and secreted by fibroblasts Ground substance
Main battlefield in fight against infection Defenders gather at infection sites Macrophages Plasma cells Mast cells White blood cells Neutrophils, lymphocytes, and eosinophils Areolar Connective Tissue
Covering and Lining Membranes combine: epithelial tissues and connective tissues (Cover broad areas within body Consist of epithelial sheet plus underlying connective tissue)
3 types of membranes Cutaneous membrane Mucous membrane Serous membrane
skin membrane Cutaneous membrane
Lines hollow organs that open to surface of body An epithelial sheet underlain with layer of lamina propria Mucous membrane
Simple squamous epithelium lying on areolar connective tissue Lines closed cavities Pleural, peritoneal, and pericardial cavities Serous membrane
3 types of muscle tissue Skeletal muscle tissue Cardiac muscle tissue Smooth muscle tissue
Long, cylindrical cells Multinucleate Obvious striations Skeletal Muscle Tissue
What are the functions of Skeletal Muscle Tissue? Voluntary movement Manipulation of environment Facial expression
Skeletal Muscle Locations Skeletal muscles attached to bones (occasionally to skin)
Branching cells, striated Generally uninucleate Cells interdigitate at intercalated discs Cardiac Muscle Tissue
Spindle-shaped cells with central nuclei Arranged closely to form sheets No striations Smooth Muscle Tissue
What is the function of Smooth Muscle Tissue? Propels substances along internal passageways Involuntary control
Where is Smooth Muscle Tissue located? Mostly walls of hollow organs
Main components are brain, spinal cord, and nerves Nervous Tissue
2 types of cells in nervous tissue Neurons—excitatory cells Supporting cells-(neuroglial cells)
What is the function of Nervous Tissue? Transmit electrical signals from sensory receptors to effectors
Where is Nervous Tissue located? Brain, spinal cord, and nerves
Nonspecific, local response Limits damage to injury site Inflammatory response
Response that takes longer to develop and very specific Destroys particular microorganisms at site of infection Immune response
Heat Redness Swelling Pain Chemicals signal nearby blood vessels to dilate Acute inflammation
increases permeability of capillaries Histamine
accumulation of fluid Edema (Helps dilute toxins secreted by bacteria Brings oxygen and nutrients from blood Brings antibodies from blood to fight infection)
Replacement of destroyed tissue with same type of tissue Regeneration
Proliferation of scar tissue Fibrosis
Clot is replaced by granulation tissue Organization
Look at slide 99-101 in PP CHAP-4 to see illustrations of repair Look at slide 99-101 in PP CHAP-4 to see illustrations of repair
Primary tissue types appear and major organs are in place by the: end of second month of development
Only a few tissues regenerate Many tissues still retain populations of stem cells In Adulthood
Which cells have a good to excellent capacity for regeneration? ET, bone CT, areolar CT, dense irregular CT, and blood forming CT
Which cells have a moderate capacity for regeneration? Smooth muscle, dense regular CT
Which cells have a weak capacity for regeneration? Skeletal MT, cartilage
Which cells have almost no capacity for regeneration? Cardiac MT, Nervous Tissue
When do the following things happen: Epithelia thin Collagen decreases Bones, muscles, and nervous tissue begin to atrophy Poor nutrition and poor circulation lead to poor health of tissues They happen with increasing age
Closely packed adipocytes Have nucleus pushed to one side by fat droplet Richly vascularized Adipose tissue
What is the function of adipose tissue? Provides reserve food fuel Insulates against heat loss Supports and protects organs
Where are adipose tissue located? Under skin Around kidneys Behind eyeballs, within abdomen, and in breasts Hypodermis
network of reticular fibers in loose ground substance Reticular Connective Tissue
What is the function of Reticular Connective Tissue? forms a soft, internal skeleton (stroma); supports other cell types
Where are Reticular Connective Tissue located? lymphoid organs Lymph nodes, bone marrow, and spleen
3 types of Dense Connective Tissue Dense irregular connective tissue Dense regular connective tissue Elastic connective tissue
Primarily irregularly arranged collagen fibers Some elastic fibers and fibroblasts Dense Irregular Connective Tissue
What is the function of Dense Irregular Connective Tissue? Withstands tension Provides structural strength
Where are Dense Irregular Connective Tissue located? Dermis of skin Submucosa of digestive tract Fibrous capsules of joints and organs
Primarily parallel collagen fibers Fibroblasts and some elastic fibers Poorly vascularized Forms fascia Dense Regular Connective Tissue
What is the function of Dense Regular Connective Tissue ? Attaches muscle to bone Attaches bone to bone Withstands great stress in one direction
Where are Dense Regular Connective Tissue located? Tendons and ligaments Aponeuroses Fascia around muscles
Consists of Elastic fibers Elastic Connective Tissue
What is the function of Elastic Connective Tissue? allows recoil after stretching
Where are Elastic Connective Tissue located? Within walls of arteries, in certain ligaments, and surrounding bronchial tubes
Firm, flexible tissue Contains no blood vessels or nerves Matrix contains up to 80% water Cell type—chondrocyte Cartilage
3 types of Cartilage Hyaline cartilage Elastic cartilage Fibrocartilage
Imperceptible collagen fibers Chodroblasts produce matrix Chondrocytes lie in lacunae Hyaline Cartilage (note: Hyaline means "resembling glass")
What is the function of Hyaline Cartilage? Supports and reinforces Resilient cushion Resists repetitive stress
Where is Hyaline Cartilage located? Fetal skeleton Ends of long bones Costal cartilage of ribs Cartilages of nose, trachea, and larynx
Similar to hyaline cartilage More elastic fibers in matrix Elastic Cartilage
Matrix similar but less firm than hyaline cartilage Thick collagen fibers predominate Fibrocartilage
What is the function of Fibrocartilage? Tensile strength and ability to absorb compressive shock
Where is Fibrocartilage located? Intervertebral discs Pubic symphysis Discs of knee joint
Calcified matrix containing many collagen fibers Osteoblasts—secrete collagen fibers and matrix Osteocytes—mature bone cells in lacunae Well vascularized Bone Tissue
What is the function of Bone Tissue? Supports and protects organs Provides levers and attachment site for muscles Stores calcium and other minerals Stores fat Marrow is site for blood cell formation
Where is Bone Tissue located? In Bones
An atypical connective tissue Develops from mesenchyme Consists of cells surrounded by nonliving matrix Blood Tissue
What is the function of Blood Tissue? Transport of respiratory gases, nutrients, and wastes
Where is Blood Tissue located? Within blood vessels
Created by: sl1512



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