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Embryology

QuestionAnswer
study of the origin and development of a single individual Embryology
Embryonic period and major events first 8 weeks Major events: Organs form from three primary germ layers. The basic body plan emerges.
Fetal period remaining 30 weeks Major events: Organs grow in size and complexity.
Look at slide 6 in PP CHAP-3 to see the basic body plan Look at slide 6 in PP CHAP-3 to see the basic body plan
in lateral third of uterine tube Zygote (fertilized oocyte) moves toward the uterus Cleavage—daughter cells formed from zygote Fertilization
solid cluster of 12–16 blastomeres Morula
fluid-filled structure of ~ 60 cells Blastocyst
forms embryo Inner cell mass
helps form placenta Trophoblast
Stages of first week Zygote 4-cell Morula Early blastocyst Late blastocyst (implants at this stage)
Look at slide 9 in PP CHAP-3 to see fertilization and the first 6 days of development Look at slide 9 in PP CHAP-3 to see fertilization and the first 6 days of development
inner cell mass divided into two sheets Bilaminar embryonic disc
Together they make up the bilaminar embryonic disc Epiblast and the hypoblast
formed by an extension of epiblast Amniotic sac
Outer membrane of amniotic sac amnion
Inner membrane of amniotic sac amniotic sac cavity (filled with amniotic fluid)
formed by an extension of hypoblast Yolk Sac
Digestive tube forms from: Yolk Sac
The Yolk Sac is NOT a major source of nutrients for embryo The Yolk Sac is NOT a major source of nutrients for embryo
Tissues around yolk sac give rise to earliest blood cells and blood vessels
Look at slide 13-15 in PP CHAP-3 to see implantation of the blastocyst Look at slide 13-15 in PP CHAP-3 to see implantation of the blastocyst
raised groove on the dorsal surface of the epiblast Primitive streak
a process of invagination of epiblast cells Begins at the primitive streak Forms the three primary germ layers Gastrulation
Three Germ Layers Endoderm—formed from migrating cells that replace the hypoblast Mesoderm—formed between epiblast and endoderm Ectoderm—formed from epiblast cells that stay on dorsal surface *All layers derive from epiblast cells
a swelling at one end of primitive streak Primitive node
forms from primitive node and endoderm Notochord
defines body axis Notochord
Is the site of the future vertebral column Appears on Day 16 Notochord
ectoderm starts forming brain and spinal cord Neurulation
ectoderm in the dorsal midline thickens Neural plate
ectoderm folds inward Neural groove
a hollow tube pinches off into the body Neural tube Cranial part of the neural tube becomes the brain Maternal folic acid deficiency causes neural tube defects
Cells originate from ectodermal cells Forms sensory nerve cells Neural crest
Ability of one group of cells to influence developmental direction of other cells Induction
our first body segments; 40 pairs Paraxial mesoderm Somites
begins as a continuous strip of tissue just lateral to the paraxial mesoderm Each segment attached to a somite Intermediate mesoderm
most lateral part of the mesoderm Lateral plate
becomes serous body cavities Coelom
next to the ectoderm Somatic mesoderm
next to the endoderm Splanchnic mesoderm
“Tadpole shape” by Day (blank) after conception 24
encloses tubular part of the yolk sac Site of future digestive tube and respiratory structures Primitive gut
Derivatives of the germ layers Ectoderm forms Brain, spinal cord, and epidermis Endoderm forms Inner epithelial lining of the gut tube Respiratory tubes, digestive organs, and urinary bladder
differentiates further and is more complex than the other two layers Mesoderm (Somites and intermediate mesoderm Somatic and splanchnic mesoderm Notocord)
Somites divide into: Sclerotome Dermatome Myotome
Intermediate mesoderm forms Kidneys and gonads
Forms musculature, connective tissues, and serosa of the digestive and respiratory structures Forms heart and most blood vessels Splanchnic mesoderm
Somatic mesoderm forms: Dermis of skin Bones Ligaments
Look at slide 35 in PP CHAP-3 to see Major Derivatives of Embryonic Germ Layers Look at slide 35 in PP CHAP-3 to see Major Derivatives of Embryonic Germ Layers
Embryo first looks recognizably human in week 8 (Head is disproportionately large All major organs are in place)
Normal births occur how many weeks after conception 38
Birth that occurs before 38 weeks Premature birth
Look at slide 38-40 in PP CHAP-3 to see Developmental Events of the Fetal Period Look at slide 38-40 in PP CHAP-3 to see Developmental Events of the Fetal Period
Created by: sl1512