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Cell Basics

firmly imbedded in, or attached to lipid bilayer Integral proteins
Short chains of carbohydrates attach to (blank) Integral proteins
Short chains of carbohydrates form the (blank) The Glycocalyx
attach to membrane surface and support cell membrane from the cytoplasmic side Peripheral proteins
tendency of molecules to move down their concentration gradient Simple Diffusion
diffusion of water molecules across a membrane Osmosis
movement of molecules down their concentration gradient through an integral protein Facilitated Diffusion
integral proteins move molecules across the plasma membrane against their concentration gradient Active Transport
Mechanism by which particles enter cells Endocytosis
“cell eating” Phagocytosis
“cell drinking” Pinocytosis
Plasma proteins bind to certain molecules Invaginates and forms a coated pit Pinches off to become a coated vesicle NOTE: This is the method by which insulin and cholesterol enter cells! Receptor-mediated Endocytosis
a mechanism that moves substances out of the cell Proteins from the vesicles (v-SNAREs) bind with membrane proteins (t-SNAREs) The lipid layers from both membranes bind, and the vesicle releases its contents to the outside of the cell Exocytosis
lies internal to cell membrane Consists of cytosol, organelles, and inclusions Cytoplasm
Jelly-like fluid in which other cellular elements are suspended Consists of water, ions, and enzymes Cytosol
composed of proteins and ribosomal RNA; not surrounded by a membrane Ribosomes
Site of protein synthesis Assembly of proteins is called translation They are the “assembly line” of the manufacturing plant Ribosomes
“network within the cytoplasm” Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
Part of ER where no ribosomes are attached; therefore no protein synthesis Smooth ER
a stack of three to 10 disk-shaped envelopes, Sorts products of rough ER and sends them to proper destination Golgi apparatus
“packaging and shipping” Golgi apparatus
Products of rough ER move through the Golgi from the (blank) to the (blank) side from the convex (cis) to the concave (trans) side
membrane-walled sacs of oxidase enzymes Enzymes neutralize free radicals and break down poisons Break down long chains of fatty acids Are numerous in the liver and kidneys Are the toxic waste removal system Peroxisomes
an elaborate network of rods Cytoskeleton
three types of rods Microtubules— cylindrical structures made of proteins Microfilaments— filaments of contractile protein actin Intermediate filaments— protein fibers
Look at Slide 30, 31, and 32 of CHAP-2 Powerpoint to see what the three types of rods look like Look at Slide 30, 31, and 32 of CHAP-2 Powerpoint to see what the three types of rods look like
a spherical structure in the cytoplasm Centrosome (Composed of centrosome matrix and centrioles )
paired cylindrical bodies Consists of 27 short microtubules Act in forming cilia Necessary for karyokinesis (nuclear division) Centrioles
Temporary structures Structures not present in all cell types
Lipid droplets Structure found in liver cell and fat cells
Glycosomes Structure that stores sugar in the form of glycogen
Nucleus approximate diameter 5µm
two parallel membranes separated by fluid-filled space Nuclear envelope
Nuclear pores -penetrate the nuclear envelope -allow large molecules to pass in and out of the nucleus
DNA plus the proteins form Chromatin
Each cluster of DNA and histone proteins is a: nucleosome
active region of DNA where DNA’s genetic code is copied onto mRNA (transcription) Extended chromatin
Tightly coiled nucleosomes Inactive form of chromatin Condensed chromatin
highest level of organization of chromatin Contains a long molecule of DNA Chromosomes
How many chromosomes does a human cell have? 46
The first part of interphase Cell metabolically active—growth—make proteins Variable in length from hours to YEARS (egg cell) Centrioles begin to replicate Growth 1 phase (G1)
DNA replicates itself Ensures that daughter cells receive identical copies of the genetic material (chromatin extended) Synthesis phase (S)
During S (synthetic) and G2 phases, cell carries on normal activities During S (synthetic) and G2 phases, cell carries on normal activities
cells divide during this stage Follows interphase (G1, S, and G2) M (mitotic) phase
Cell division involves: Mitosis—division of the nucleus during cell division Chromosomes are distributed to the two daughter nuclei Cytokinesis— division of the cytoplasm Occurs after the nucleus divides
What are the stages of Mitosis? PMATI
the first and longest stage of mitosis chromatin threads condense into chromosomes Centriole pairs separate from one another The mitotic spindle forms Prophase (Look at Slide 52 in PP CHAP-2 to compare Early Prophase vs. Late Prophase)
the second stage of mitosis Chromosomes cluster at the middle of the cell Centromeres are aligned along the equator Look at Slide 54 in PP CHAP-2 to see what Metaphase, Anaphase, and Telophase look like) Metaphase (Look at Slide 54 in PP CHAP-2 to see what Metaphase, Anaphase, and Telophase look like)
the third and shortest stage of mitosis Centromeres of chromosomes split Anaphase (Look at Slide 54 in PP CHAP-2 to see what Metaphase, Anaphase, and Telophase look like)
begins as chromosomal movement stops Chromosomes at opposite poles of the cell uncoil Resume threadlike extended-chromatin form A new nuclear membrane forms Telophase
completes the division of the cell into two daughter cells Cytokinesis
Cells that connect body parts, form linings, or transport gases Erythrocytes, Fibroblasts, Epithelial cells
Cells that move organs and body parts Skeletal Muscle Cells, Smooth Muscle Cells
Cell that stores nutrients Fat Cell
Cell that fights disease Macrophage
Cell that gathers information and controls body functions Nerve Cell
Cell of reproduction Sperm
Created by: sl1512



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