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APChap4-8Exam

Exam2FSU

QuestionAnswer
Cell Growth and Development (Cancer) Cancer cells make telomorase. Telomerase is an enzyme that adds bases to the telomeres. Telomeres are the repeated base on the end of chromosomes. Somactic Cells have little telomerase so they shorten w/ age.
Cell Functions (Tissue and Aging) One definite characteristic in aging is that EVERY CELL decreases in ATP production. ATP is produced by the mitochondria. When mitochondrial function decreases in cells disease symptoms arise.
Flexibility Decreases When collagen fibers become more irregular in structure, but increase in number. Elastic Fiber fragments, bind to calcium ions, and lose elasticity. Collagen and Elastic Fibers form cross-links with glucose molecules.
Muscle Strength Muscle Strength is at it's peak b/w the ages of 20 and 30 years of age. And weakness in muscles can be slowed and reversed with exercise.
Collagen and Elastic Fibers The most cross-linked so the first affected. They are: Lens of Eyes, Joints, Blood vessels and heart, lungs and kidney's
Atherosclerosis Deposit of sludge-like material, made up of calcium, lipids, and cholesterol that lines the large and medium sized arteries.
Arteriosclerosis Calcification and fibrosis of the sludge.
Thrombus Clot or plaque forming inside the vessel.
Embolus Broken piece of plaque that moves through the circulation and may block a smaller artery.
Free Radicals Theory of Aging Free radicals are atoms/molecules with an unpaired electron. That can react w/ and alter the structure of molecules that are critical for normal cell function. Alteration of the molecules can result in cellular damage. Antioxidants can donate electrons.
Immune System Changes The Immune Sys. becomes more sensitive to the body's own antigens at the same time it loses its ability to respond to outside antigens. These "autoimmune" changes add to tissue degeneration. T-lymphocytes also lose some functional capacity w/ age.
Genetics and Aging Slower metabolic rates seem to increase life span, faster metabolic rates seem to decrease lifespan. Studies of population suggest that there are family indicators of life span. Some inheritable genes have specific effects on aging -> disease
Cancer An abnormal growth known as a tumor that includes rapid proliferation, which continues after growth of cell tissue has stopped or slowed. Cancer is a malignant, spreading tumor and the illness that results from it. (benign- good, malignant-bad)
Cancer Causes Most cancers are caused by mutations of genes rapidly dividing somatic cells. (carinogen-cause my a chemical or radiation; virus-alters DNA of infect cell) 10% of cancers inherited b/c of oncinogenes that increase rate of cell division or lack tumor sup.
Cancer Treatment Options Kill cancer cells and surrounding tissue (harms healthy tissue too); Prevent blood vessel development w/ drugs; Therapies to stimulate the immune system to recognize and destroy tumor cells.
Damage to DNA DNA Polymerase that is important to DNA synthesis that proofreads the new DNA strand. The DNA Repair enzyme detects and corrects the errors that happen during DNA synthesis.
Damage to Organelles Lysosomes engulf and digest the material.
Damage that Cannot be Repaired Apoptosis triggering agent (from inside or outside the cell)causes "cell suicide" genes to produce enzymes that damage the cells and shrinks away from other cells. Necrosis Cell death, where cells swell, burst and bleed cytoplasm b/w other cells cause dam
Tissue Repair The substitution of dead/damaged cells w/ new functional cells.
Labile (Tissue Repair) can do mitosis throughout life (i.e skin, lining of organs, blood producing tissue)
Stable (Tissue Repair) Does not do mitosis after growth ends unless injured (i.e liver, pancreas)
Permanent (Tissue Repair) cells that are replaced by a different cell type if killed (nervous tissue*, skeletal and cardiac muscle)
Inflammation A nonspecific, defensive response of the body to tissue damage (regardless of the cause) [Redness, Heat, Swelling, pain, Loss of Function(possibly)] *in order of severity
Steps of Inflammation Histamines are released by injured or nearby tissues. Blood flow increases to the area. White blood cells and clotting proteins deal with the injury, Grannulatis grows into the area, Approp tissue replaces granulation tissue (hopefully).
Nervous Tissue Repair Has very limited powers of regeneration
Peripheral Nervous System damage may be repaired if the cell body of the neuron is intact and the schwann cells (produce myelin) are functioning
Central Nervous System Little or no repair of damage to neurons occur. This is due to exaggerated inflammatory response.
Organ Repair Organs have different regenerative abilities, which is in part due to blood supply. Examples, Integument (skin, lining or organs), Bones (includes blood cell production), liver, Pancreas, Heart and Brian + Spinal cord.
First Degree Burns Damage is only to the epidermis (red, pain and slight swelling)
Second Degree Burns Damages to the epidermis and dermis. (red, pain, swelling and blisters)
Third Degree Burns Destroys the epidermis, dermis and dermis and underlying tissue. (white, brown, black and red, no pain)
Skin repair from burns Partial thickness burns, only affects the epidermis and dermis and can regenerate completely (may scar some). Full thickness burns, affects the underlying tissue and cannot regenerate completely (requires skin grafting).
Structure of the Integument Skins, Hair, nail, and endocrine glands (only those that secrete onto the skin)
Functions of Integumentary System protect against mechanical damage and infection, help the body respond to sensation. Help control blood flow and sweat glands through temperature regulation Produce Vitamin D (after UV exposure) Help excrete of small amounts of waste.
Skin Epidermis, superficial layer of the skin, composed of four or five layers of epithelial tissue. Dermis, deep part of the skin, composed of 2 layers of connective tissue (contains many structures). Hypodermis, Not apart of the skin. Com loose con tis, adi.
Keratinocytes Produce Keratin for strength and waterproofing.
Melenocytes Produce melanin for production from UV radiation.
Langerhans Cells Immune Cells
Merkels Cells Detect light touch
Epidermal cells cells divide constantly and push older cells toward the surface where they are sloughed off.
Dermis Contains blood vessesls, hair follicles, smooth muscles, glands, lymphatic vessels, nerves. Sensory Fuct, pain, itch, touch, tickle, temp, touch, pressure, 2 pnt discrimination.
Integumentary System Accessory Structures hair shaft, hair root. Has a growth stage and a resting phase.
Created by: DuckNNCover