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a & p 2

endocrine system

the system that is a group of glands that secrete substances directly into the blood stream endocrine
does the endocrine system have ducts? No
Glands secreting substances through ducts are called.... exocrine glands
the secretions from endocrine glands are called? hormones
examples of body functions affected by hormones are/ growth/development, metabolism, the composition of the blood and bones, sexual maturity, and the function of all endocrine glands
Name the 9 glands pituitary, thyroid, parathyroids, pancreas, adrenals, ovaries, testes, thymus, pineal body
the hyperactivity or hypoactivity of the gland causes changes in the ______ body
adipose means fat
adipose cells secrete polypeptides that influence ______ and energy metabolism appetite
considered to be the "master" gland, secreting a large number of hormones that affect other glands, growth, and development pituitary
Location of the pituitary gland? under the surface of the brain
what is the pituitary gland protected by? sella turcica
the pituitary gland consist of a large _____ and a small _____ lobe anterior and posterior
the hormones of the anterior lobe of the pituitary are Growth hormone, thyroropin, adrenocoticotropic hormone, Melanocyte- stimulating hormone, prolactin,
Insufficient GH production during childhood results in? dwarfism
overproduction of GH in childhood results in? gigantism
Overproduction of GH in adulthood results in? acromegaly
the thyroid-stimulating hormone, Increases the growth and activity of thyroid cells to produce thyroid hormone thyrotropin
Stimulates the cortex of the adrenal gland to produce steroids ACTH
Responsible for breast development and the production of milk prolactin
increases skin pigmentation MSH
the following gonadotropic hormones control the development of the reproductive system in both females and males luteinizing, follicle-stimulating hormone
the hormone that enlarges the graafian follicle of the ovary to the point of rupture and stimulates the follicle to produce estrogen in the female and the production of sperm in the male FSH
the hormone in the female causes the ruptured ovarian follicle to become a corpus luteum that in secretes the hormone progesterone, in the male stimulates the interstitial cells in the testes to produce testosterone LH
the hormones of the posterior lobe of the pituitary are oxytocin, vasopressin or ADH
hormone that stimulates the contractions of the uterus, especially during childbirth; responsible for the FLOW of milk from the breast oxytocin
Acts on the kidney tubule cells to concentrate urine and conserve water within the body. Stimulates smooth muscles of the blood vessels to constrict vasopressin or ADH
this gland has 2 lobes one on each side of the larynx with a connecting central section called the ISTHMUS Thyroid Gland
the thyroid gland produces 3 hormones; thyroxine, triiodothyronine, and calcitonin
Calcitonin causes the reduction in the level of ____ in the blood calcium
(T) and (T3) strongly affect ______, which influences both the physical and ______ activity necessary for normal growth and development metabolism. mental
the thyroid gland requires _____ to form the thyroid hormones iodine
Iodine is obtained by eating what vegetables grown in soil containing iodine or by eating seafood
when thyroid activity is low hypothyroidism
when thyroid activity is high hyperthyroidism
lack of iodine causes the thyroid gland to enlarge
an enlarged thyroid gland is called goiter
a person of hypothyroidism feels; cold, and fatigued; has low pulse rate, subnormal temp, and may be overweight
a person of hyperthyroidism feels; nervous, restless and irritable. hate rate is up and elevated systolic b/p. May loose weight.
a person of hyperthyroidism may have the eyes protrude dramatically in a condition called exophtalmos
How is hyperthyroid treated? by thyroidectomy or limiting the function with radioactive iodine or antithyroid drug
how is hypothyroid treated? taken orally in a supplement
what gland is usually in 2 pairs, are embedded on the posterior surface of the thyroid gland Parathyroid
the parathyroid gland is responsible for regulating the calcium content of the blood
results in increased levels of calcium in the blood, which leads to the formation of? Hyperparathyroidism, Kidney stones
hypoparathyroidism is an uncontrollable twitching and spasm of the muscles of the body called tetany
hyperirritability of the nervous system in response to the lowered concentration of what in the blood? calcium
glands that sit atop each kidney, is contained in a fibrous capsule and is composed of two pairs, each of which acts separately adrenal glands (suprarenal)
the outer glandular tissue of the adrenal gland is called cortex
the inner glandular tissue of the adrenal gland is called medulla
principal hormone of the medulla is adrenaline
adrenaline aka epinephrine
the adrenaline medulla is considered to be _________ to life nonessential
the cortex the adrenal gland is _______ to life essential
the cortex produces steroid hormones in 3 categories: mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, and sex steroids
the pancreas is a dual-function _______, exocrine and endocrine. organ
the hormone insulin is secreted by the B cells of the islets of Langerhans
insulin is necessary for the metabolism of carbs
with reduced islet function, the level of blood sugar rises to an abnormal amount, which is called hyperglycemia
abnormally low blood sugar is called hypoglycemia
hyperglycemia and glycosuria are the 2 outstanding characteristics of diabetes mellitus
type 1 diabetes, is and _______ disease that eventually results in severe _____ deficiency autoimmune, insulin
the ____ gland is a two-lobed structure located under the sternum, composed of lymphoid tissue and is enclosed in a fibrous capsule Thymus
the thymus is large during _________ but begins to disappear with the onset of_____ childhood, puberty
the _____ body is a small mass of tissue attached by a slim stalk to the roof of the third ventricle in the brain pineal
the pineal body is believed to produce a substance called melatonin
melatonin plays a role in regulating circadian rythms
Melatonin is highest in the dark
Melatonin also regulates/ sleep
Ovaries and testes are called the gonads
the ovaries secrete estrogen
what aids in maintaining pregnancy progesterone
testes produce a hormone known as testosterone
the gonads are the organs of _____ and ______ in both sexes. fertility and reproduction
the pituitary gland produces excess GH during adult hood. S/S enlarged hands, feet, and prominent facial features Acromegaly
deficiency of adrenal hormones fro the cortex of the adrenal gland. S/S pigmented appearance of the skin, weakness, low b/p, tiredness and salt craving Addison disease
endocrine disorder of the thyroid gland that has physical and mental ramifications. S/S mental retardation and a dwarflike appearance Cretinism
endocrine disorder of the adrenal glands that has physical and physiologic effects. S/S hypertension, obesity, weakness of the muscles, and bruises. a deposit of fat between the shoulders and rounded face. purple streaks, trunk obese, yet limbs slender Crushing's syndrome
most common form of hyperthyroidism, S/S thyroid gland enlarges and the pt. becomes nervous, intolerance to heat, loses weight, sweats. eyes bulge. results from an increase in the production of thyoxine. Graves Disease
endocrine disorder or the thyroid gland is associated with too little thyroid hormones. S/S relation to the degree to hypothyroidism. forgetfulness, dry skin, and intolerance for cold Myxedema
the sex steroid govern certain sexual characteristics, especially those that are male oriented, these steroids are called androgen
control electrolyte balances through regulating the reabsorption of sodium in the kidney tubules and the excretion of potassium mineralocorticoids
affect the metabolism of protein, fat and glucose glucocorticoids
Created by: bpstears



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