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Skeleton System: P

Anatomy & Physiology

major function of the skeletal system provide supportive framework and support
major organ of the skeletal system bones
ligaments connect bone to bone
skeletal system includes cartilage, bones, joints, and ligaments
smooth cartilage at the ends of bone allows... people to move without pain
functions of the skeletal system support, protection, movement, mineral storage, blood cell formation
two important organs the skeletal system protects brain and spinal cord (alligator and jaguar)
how the skeletal system is important for movement muscle attaches to bone (pulling on the muscle, pulls on the bone with creates movement)
blood cell formation occurs within... bone marrow
number of bones in the human body 206
number of bones that are not fused in the human body and can engage in voluntary movement 177
2 major sections of the skeletal system axial and appendicular
axial section includes... skull, spine, sternum, ribs
appendicular section includes... upper and lower extremities
five types of bones (describe appearance) long, short, sesamoid, flat, and irregular
description of long bones longer than they are wide
description of short bones equal in length and width
description of sesamoid bone floating, not directly attached to another bone
description of flat bones thinner than they are wide
description of irregular bones oddly shaped (irregularly shaped)
examples of long bones bones in the appendicular regions (femur)
examples of short bones bones in the wrist and ankle
example of a sesamoid bone knee
flat bones sternum, ribs, scapula, and skull
example of irregular bones vertebrae, hip, and skull
two types of bone (describe composition) compact bone and spongy bone
description of compact bone (aka dense or cortical bone), relatively dense connective bone tissue that appears white, smooth, and solid and makes up 80% of bone mass
description of spongy bone (aka cancellous or trabecular bone), located internal to compact bone and appears porous; makes up 20% of bone mass
where is spongy bone found? in the knobs of the bones (the ends)
purpose of spongy bone absorb some of the shock of the body (jarring motion that causes pain when you jump off a swing)
where is compact bone found? the shaft of the bone
two regions of a long bone diaphysis, epiphysis, metaphysis (includes epiphyseal plate)
diaphysis the shaft of the bone; provides leverage and major weight support; contains medullary cavity through the middle of the bone
epiphysis knobby region at the ends of long bone (two types)
two types of epiphysis proximal epiphysis and distal epiphysis
proximal epiphysis end of the bone closest to the trunk
distal epiphysis end of the bone furthest from the trunk
composition of the epiphysis outer thin layer of compact bone and inner region of spongy bone
what is the join surface of the epiphysis covered with a thin layer of hyaline cartilage (aka articular cartilage)
purpose of hyaline cartilage at the end of the epiphysis reduce friction and absorb shock in moveable joints
metaphysis region of mature bone between diaphysis and epiphysis (contains epiphyseal plate)
epiphyseal plate located in the metaphysis; it is a thin layer of hyaline cartilage that provides for continued lengthwise bone growth (growth plate)
periosteum tough sheath covering the outer surface of the bone that is composed of two layers, and attaches to the bone by numerous collagen fibers (aka perforating fibers)
two types of layers in the periosteum outer fibrous layer of dense irregular connective tissue and an inner cellular layer
function of the outer fibrous layer of dense irregular connective tissue in the periosteum protects the bone from surrounding structures, anchors blood vessels and nerves to the bone surface, and acts as an attachment site for ligaments and tendons
what is included in the inner cellular membrane of the periosteum? osteoprogenitor cells, osteoblasts, and osteoclasts
three types of cartilage hyaline cartilage, fibrocartilage, and elastic cartilage
function of the hyaline cartilage support and reinforce structure by resisting compressive forces, reducing friction, and functions in growth (basic type of cartilage)
functions of fibrocartilage absorb shock by resisting compressive and tensile forces (more fibrous)
tensile forces involve stretching out
functions of elastic cartilage maintain shape by allowing for stretch-ability and recoil and provides support (more elastin - can stretch and regain shape!)
Where is hyaline cartilage? At the ends of growth plates, the tip of your nose, the soft spot on a babies head, and between the ribs
Where is fibrocartilage? intervertebral discs, meniscus, and pubic symphysis
Where is elastic cartilage? ear canal, ear, and epiglottis
tendons anchor muscle to bone
four types of cells found in bone connective tissue osteoprogenitor cells, osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts
osteoprogenitor cells stem cells - they produce cells that mature and become osteoblasts (pre-babies of bone cells)
osteoblasts synthesize and secrete osteoid
osteoid initial semisolid form of bone matrix that later calcifies
osteocytes mature bone cells derived from osteoblasts that maintain the bone matrix and detect mechanical stress on bone
osteoclasts large phagocytic cells that are involved in breaking down bone and may trigger deposition of new bone matrix
bone growth and remodeling occurs in a cyclic pattern (osteoprogenitor cells --> osteoblasts --> osteocytes --> osteoclasts --> again) and begins during emryologic development
bone growth in length aka interstitial growth
bone growth in diameter aka appositional growth
bone growth in length occurs because... flexible hyaline cartilage permits growth and is replace by bone
the epiphyseal plate (with interstitial growth) interstital growth occurs there if there is hyaline cartilage (during childhood, it maintains thickness; slows rate of cartilage production at maturity; narrows until it disappears (interstitial growth stops)
remnant from the epiphyseal plate remnant - internal thin line of compact bone (epiphyseal line)
bone growth in diameter occurs... within the periosteum (bone matrix is deposited within layers parallel to surface (circumferential lamellae); as the layers increase in number, structure incresaes in diameter (transforms infant bone into a large adult version)
layers parallel to bone surface in the bone matrix circumferential lamellae
as bone grows in diameter, the bone is strengthened
as bone grows in length, you get taller
the continual process of bone deposition and resorption is known as bone remodeling
bone remodeling continues throughout adulthood, occurs at periosteal and endosteal surfaces of a bone at different rates depending on stress, and is dependent on the coordinate activities of osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts
mechanical stress occurs in weight-bearing movement and exercise, and is required for normal bone remodeling; results from skeletal contraction and gravitation forces
how mechanical stress is detected it is detected by osteocytes and communicated to osteoblasts (increase synthesis of osteoid), and causes an increase in bone strength
increased bone mass results from weight-bearing activities (i.e. weight lifting, walking, or running (can increase total bone mass throughout lifetime)
decreased bone mass from removal of mechanical stress, reduced collagen formation, and demineralization (results in decreased strength of unstressed bone in immobilized fracture)
breaks in bones are termed fractures
fractures occur as a result of... unusual stress or impact, increased age (due to normal thinning and weakening of bone)
four types of fractures stress fracture, pathologic fracture, simple fracture, and compound fracture
stress fracture thin break caused by increased physical activity such as when bone experiences repetitive load in running
pathologic fracture occurs in bone weakened by disease (i.e. osteoporosis, brittle bone disease)
simple fracture broken bone not penetrating the skin
compound fracture one or both ends of the bone piercing overlying skin
fracture healing varies in length depending on the type (i.e. simple fracture - 2 to 3 months; compound fracture - longer) and generally becomes slower with age, and some require surgical intervention to heal correctly
first step of bone fracture repair (fracture hematoma forms) a blood clot forms (blood vessels torn within periosteum)
second step of bone fracture repair (fibrocartilaginous callus forms) the fracture hematoma is reorganized into a connective tissue procallus that becomes the fibrocartilaginous (soft) callus
third step of bone fracture repair (hard (bony) callus forms) forms a hard bony callus that continues to grow and thicken
fourth step of bone fracture repair (the bone is remodeled) osteoblasts remove excess bony material, compact bone replaces primary bone, and usually leaves a slight thickening of the bone
Created by: Nicolekr



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