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The Age of Religious Wars

What 2 factors fueled the religious wars actual religious conflict + dynastic rivalries between protestants and catholics
what was the nature of religious conflict during the first half of the 16h century lutheran/zwinglian struggle for rights in central europe
what had become a legal religion in the holy roman empire after the Peace of Augsburg? Lutheranism
by 1564 what had Geneva become? refuge for persecuted protestants and international school for protestant resistance
What is a politique? a ruler who keeps political unity by promoting religious tolerance
list 3 rulers who were not politiques mary I of england, phillip II of spain, oliver cromwell
what 3 countries experienced religious wars? France, netherlands, England
Who were the Huguenots? when were they in france? french protestants; already in france in 1520s when lutheran writings were spreading
What provided the motive for the first wave of protestant persecutions in France? capture of French King Francis I by Emperor Charles V, who was a Protestant opponent
What did the Edict of Fontainebleau do? subjected huguenots to the Inquisition
what important shift happened in 1559? power started to shift from france to spain
with the french monarchy weakened, what happened? 3 powerful french families (Guises, Bourbons, Montmorency-Chatillions) all competed for control
What was the name "guise" interchangeable with? militant catholicism
what were the religious views of the other 2 leading families? why? they were Huguenot because of political reasons
What 2 men became the political leaders of the French Protestant resistance? Louis I, prince of Condé (bourbon) and Admiral Coligny (montmorency chatillion)
describe the calvinist population in france was very small percentage of main population, but prevalent in noble population
how did the Calvinist alliance with political dissidents help and hurt the movement? helped with goal to become an accepted religion, hurt because of suspicion about secular motives of calvinists
Who was Catherine de Medicis? What is she known for? queen regent for son Charles IX, king of france. tried to be in between the 2 sides (guises and Protestants)
What event marked beginining of French wars of religion? Duke of Guise massacred Protestant worshippers in Champagne
What did the Peace of Saint-Germain-en-Laye do? gave Protestants right to religious freedoms in their towns + right to fortify their towns
What happened at the St Bartholomew's Day Massacre? the crown ordered thousands of Huguenots + Coligny to be murdered in Paris, supported by Catherine de medicis
How did the St Barts Day Massacre change the nature of the struggle between the Protestants and Catholics? changed it from a french struggle to international struggle
What was the new Protestant resistance theory like? focused on political resistance --> lower magistrates had right to oppose rulers if they were being tyrannical
What was granted at the Peace of Beaulieu? Did it last and why? granted Huguenots almost complete religious freedom. Did not last because france wasnt ready for that much toleratoin
What group did Henry Navarre lead? Protestants
When King Henry was assassinated, who took over the throne? Henry of Navarre
How did Spain and the Pope react to Henry of Navarre becoming King? unhappy because didn't want France to be Protestant
How did the French people react to the Spanish trying to interfere with Henry IV's rule? didn't like it because they liked Henry IV and thought he should rule
How was Henry IV a politique converted from Protestantism to Catholicism to keep peace
What did the Edict of Nantes declare? gave Huguenots rights of public worship, access to universities/offices, rights to fortify towns ONLY in their own towns
What happened in May 1610? Henry IV assassinated by Catholic fanatic
What was Henry IV's legacy Edict of Nantes, and his political/economic policies that helped stabilize France
describe spain before defeat of the spanish armada in 1588 most powerful european power ruled by philip II
What are the 4 pillars of spanish power new world riches from silver mines, increased population, efficient bureacracy and military, supremacy in mediterranean
What was the battle of lepanto Holy League (spain and others) won naval battle against ottoman navy --> spain temporarily controls mediterranean
What happened when Philip tries to impose his will on the netherlands, england, and france? He faced resistance + was defeated
Who was cardinal granvelle? what did he do? head of spanish ruling council in netherlands, wanted to establish centralized Catholic gov in netherlands
was granvelles removal enough to stop popular unrest no aristocrats ruled unsuccessfully, still unrest
what was the Compromise? what was it a response to dutch protestant pledge to reists decrees of trent + inquisition, response to philip trying to enforce council of trent
what was the Council of Troubles tribunal led by Duke of Alba that harshly rules over netherlands
who emerged as a leader of Dutch independence movement william of orange
how did political resistance gain support by merging with Calvinism
what were the Sea Beggars, what did they do international group of anti-spainish exiles who captured port city Brill and spread resistance
What happened during the Pacification of Ghent S and N Catholic provinces unite against Spain, declared that regions can choose religion
What was the 12 years truce? gave n provinces of netherlands independence
what were mary tudor's shocking domestic policies -got rid of protestant statues, executed many prot. for heresy
3 Major settlements of Elizabeth I Act of Supremacy (gave elizabeth complete power) Act of Uniformity(every english priest needs book of common prayer) and 39 Articles (moderate protestantism as official english religion)
2 groups of puritans Presbyterians (wanted to create semi autonomous congregations; Congregationalists wanted every congregation autonomous
What was the Babington Plot. result? plot to kill elizabeth which mary was in on, mary was executed
What happened to the Spanish Armada? it was defeated by the english + dutch ships in 1588
what was the result of the defeat of the Spanish Armada spain lost stance as major european power
what is the thirty years war last and most destructive of religious wars
what were the preconditions of the war? politically/religiously divided germany, failure of peace of augsburg
what percentage of the pop was protestant 50%
who is frederick III elector of german territory Palatinate who made Calvinism official religion there
what is the significance of Heidelburg main German stronghold for calvinism
significance of Bavaria main German stronghold ffor counter reformation
what was the Catholic League formed to counter protestant alliance formed by elector palatine frederick IV
Who was habsburg Ferdinand archduke who became king of bohemia, catholic
what is the Defenstration of Prague event where protestant nobles reacted to ferdinand revoking religious freedom by throwing his regents out of a window
What happened in the Bohemian phase Defenstration of prague --> emperor vs bohemian calvinist nobility --> protestants defeated in battle of white mountain (catholic victory)
who is maximillian of bavaria catholic duke who allied with emperor
What happened in the Danish phase Wallenstein (mercenary general) fights for HRE --> won many battles -->edict of restitution --> Catholic victory
What did the Edict of Restitution declare calvinism was illegal, lutherans had to return church land they gained
what happened in the Swedish phase? Gustavas Adolphus (protestant swedish king) wins battle of breitenfeld --> protestants get territories back
What was the Peace of Prague german protestant states make compromise with emp ferdinand II
What was the Peace of Prague german protestant states make compromise with emp ferdinand II
Describe the swedish french period of the war becomes international --> Cardinal Reichelieu (politique) + protestants defeat HRE, ; foreign armies were destroying disunited germany which led to peace talks
what fraction of germanys population did the war kill 1/3
what did the treaty of Westphalia do ended reformation in Germany
what were 2 main terms of the treaty reaffirmed that territories determine own religion, calvinism became legal, HRE dissolved, independence of Sweden + netherlands
main results of 30 years war germany destroyed, germany weakened, ended wars of religion, france as main power
Created by: mhaq.16