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a & p 2

chapter 32 digestive system

QuestionAnswer
The group of organs that changes food that has been eaten into a form that can be used by the body's cells. Name the system Digestive
Another name for the digestive system? Gastrointestinal
Connecting chain of organs is sometimes referred to as the... Alimentary canal
The digestive process can be divided into four phases: Ingestion, digestion, absorbtion, and Elimination
Food that is consumed is acted on by various ______ & _____ means as it progresses through the body Mechanical & Chemical
The main organs of the system are those through which food passes. They are? Mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, Small intestine & large intestine
Organs that play a major role in the digestive process, in the mouth, there are the? Teeth, salivary glands and tongue
The liver, gallbladder and pancreas have acess to the? Small intestine
The activity performed by the organs of the digestive system, & is defined as the process by which food is broken down, mechanically & chemically, in the GI tract and converted into an absorbable form that can be used by the cells of the body. Digestion
The human body can manufacture the appropriate fuel if it receives an adequate supply of the right _____ materials Raw
Carbohydrates, proteins, fats, minerals, vitamins, water and roughage are Raw materials the are available from the basic food groups.
Raw materials from the basic food grout should be eaten _____. Daily
Carbohydrates supply about two thirds of energy calories needed each _____ Day
Proteins are obtained primarily from? Plant and animals sources
Proteins are important to be eaten daily because they are the main ingredients needed to..... Build and repair cells and tissue
Other raw materials required for a healthy body are what two things? Vitamins and minerals
All the raw materials the body needs are altered by the _____ _____ to provide the essential elements necessary for good health Digestive system
Food enters through the? Mouth
What breaks up the food into small pieces to make it easier to swallow and prepare it for more effective action by digestive enzymes. Teeth
Baby teeth are called? And appear at what age? Deciduous, 6 months
Permanent teeth begins at age? 6 yrs old
Name of teeth that bites with sharp edges Incisors
Teeth that are pointed to puncture and tear? Canines or cuspids
Teeth for grinding and crushing? Premolars or bicuspids and molars
What muscle in the mouth aids the process by moving the food around and brings it in contact with the teeth? Tongue
The surface of the tongue contain _______ _______, located within the papillae projections Tatse buds
Excrete the fluid know as saliva The salivary glands
Saliva is released from 3 pairs of glands, what are they? Parotid, submandibular and sublingual
Saliva contains an enzyme called _______, which this chemical begins the break down of carbohydrates into sugar. Ptyalin
Saliva also provides moisture that enables the taste buds to perceive the sensations of what 4 things? Sweet, sour, bitter and salty
Saliva cleans the ____ by washing away food particles. Teeth
What aids tthe production of speech Presence of saliva in the oral cavity.
The combo of mashed food substances and saliva is called.... Bolus
The bolus could go down what 3 different directions? Nasal cavity, down and foward into thetrachea and the esophagus
Once food is swallowed, its movement through the body is maintained by the smooth, involuntary muscle action called? Peristalsis
food enters the esophagus, muscles contract and relax squeezing the bolus which create the peristaltic "______ action", which moves the bolus to the _____. milking, stomach
upper opening to the stomach is controlled by a circular muscle called the..... cardiac sphincter
the stomach is shaped like the letter? J
how long is the stomach? 10 inches
stomach is structured by how many layers 3
where is the stomach located? just beneath the diaphram
the inner layer of the stomach is thick and full of folds called? rugae
Because the stomach is capable of expanding it can hold about _____ _____ of food and liquid. half gallon
Once in the stomach the circular, longitudinal, and an oblique layer work together in a strong rhythmic motion to ? break up the food into tiny particles
the stomach lining is formed of? mucus membrane
the stomach lining also has about 35 million ____ glands, which secrete __________ ______, and several enzyme. gastric, hydrochloric acid
what enzyme curdles the milk? rennin
What is the enzyme that splits certain fats, while pepsin digests the milk curds fro the rennin? Lipase
What layer of the stomach protects the gastric cells from acid injury? Mucus layer
an excess of acid of a length of time can cause an? ulcer
a peptic ulcer is? an ulcer in the stomach that is caused by acid
The partially digested food in the stomach is changed into semiliquid stated called ______ in 3 to 5 hours chime
liquid passes in the matter of ? minutes
where is the pyloric sphincter located? at the end of the stomach
the pyloric sphincter allows the chyme to spurt through the sphincter into the? small intestine
emesis vomiting
1 inch in diameter and 20 feet in length small intestine
the small intestine completes the _______ process and absorbs the _____ from the chime. digestive, nutrients
how many sections to the small intestine? 3
the first and C-shaped and is about 9 inches long. duodenum
the 2nd segment is about 8 feet long in length jejunum
the 3rd is 12 feet long ileum
the jejunum and ileum are suspended in the abdominal cavity by the _____, it is a fan-shaped fold of tissue that is attached to the posterior abdominal wall. mesentery
which valve allows the chyme to enter the cecum and separates the ileum and cecum? ileocecal
what is the cecum? it is the first segment of the large intestine
largest gland in the body? liver
the liver lies below the diaphragm in the ____ ____ ____ of the abdomen. URQ
The liver secretes _____ and digest _____ bile, fats
the liver also stores ______, a form of glucose. glycogen
the liver performs life-essential service of manufacturing _______, _______ and other substances required for the process of clotting. fibrinogen and prothrombin
liver is also an important storage area for blood and body fluid because of its? large size
the liver receives blood from 2 separate systems. the arterial and hepatic artery
it is a small sac attached to the underside of the liver and its sole purpose is the concentration and storage of bile. gallbladder
gallbladder has 3 ducts, name them. cystic, hepatic, and common bile
the common duct empties the bile directly into the? duodenum
what are cholelithiasis gallstones
surgical removal of gallstone cholecystectomy
yellow discoloration of sclera, mucosa and skin is known as jaundice
lies behind the stomach, is a gland in 2 different ways pancreas
pancreas secrets directly in the bloodstream a substance called? insulin
a vital function of the small intestine absorption
absorption is accomplished through millions of microscopic structures known as _____ villi
5 feet long, 2 inches in diameter aka the colon, and absorbs the excess liquid from the chyme through capillaries in the lining large intestine
are there villi in the large intestine nope
the colon absorbs water, plus some salts and proteins, are later filtered out of the blood by _____ to be eliminated in the urine kidneys
remaining fibrous waste are formed into semisolid feces to be eliminated through the ? rectum
when material leaves the ileum, it enters the cecum
the large intestine are divided into ascending, transverse and descending sections
the rectum is ___ to ___ inches long 6 to 8 inches
the _____ canal is a narrow passageway about 1 inch long, extending from the rectum to the _____ anal, anus
both ends of the anal canal are controlled by sphincter muscle
Localized infection is a collection of educate in the soft tissue adjacent to the anus or rectum. S/S thrombing, painful lump, which makes sitting and coughing very uncomfortable Anorectal abscess and fistula
What is appendicitis and what is the treatment? Inflamed appendix. Surgical removal (appendectomy)
Chronic disease of the liver. Cirrhosis
inflammation of the colon colitis
malignancy of the colon or rectum colorectal
an artificial opening of he colon, allowing fecal material to be excreted from the body through the abdominal wall colostomy
flatus gas
a condition of sluggish bowel action constipation
an inflammation of any portion of the GI tract Crohn's Disease
a condition of repeated frequent, liquid stools diarrhea
is the presence of bulging pouches in the wall of the GI tract where the lining has pushed into the surrounding muscle Diverticulosis
crack or tear in the lining of the anus anal fissure
an inflammation of the stomach and intestines gastroenteritis
a backflow of gastric gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
the veins become dilated in anus and or rectum hemorrhoids
inflammation and infection of the liver, has different types hepatitis
the protrusion of an internal organ hernia
the surgical opening of the ileum allows chyme of the small intestine to empty through the abdominal wall ileostomy
chronic diarrhea and altering constipation IBS
physiologic intestinal obstruction paralytic ileus
an encircled lesion in the mucous membrane lining of the stomach, lower esophagus, duodenum, or jejunum peptic ulcer
a mass of tissue polyp
itching of the area surrounding the anus, often associated with irritation and burning pruritus ani
a narrowing of the pyloric sphincter, which interferes with the stomach
exam to view the entire large intestine using a flexible fiberoptic scope colonoscopy
Radiologic studies of the GI tract Gastrointestinal series
when esophagus is in question, pt. may have to drink radiopaque liquid called barium swallow
viewing of the esophagus, stomach, and upper duodenum though a flexible scoped that is lighted by fiberoptics gastroscopy
scanning structures, such as the liver or spleen, made possible by radioactive materials nuclear medicine studye
exam of the lower rectum and anal canal proctoscopy
exam to view the lower portion of the sigmoid and rectum sigmioidoscopy
Created by: bpstears