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Dragon Rises Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 4 - Histology

Histology study of tissues
tissue group of similar cells and cell products that arise from the same region of the embryo, are similar in structure and work together to perform a specific structural or physiological function in an organ
three primary germination layers in embryonic tissues ectoderm (outer) layer, mesoderm (middle) layer, endoderm (inner) layer
ectoderm gives rise to epidermis and nervous system
mesoderm wispy collagen fibers and fibroblasts in gel matrix; gives rise to muscle, bone, and blood
endoderm gives rise to mucous membrane lining digestive and respiratory tracts, digestive glands, and others
longitudinal section (l.s.) tissues cut along long direction of organ
cross section (c.s. or x.s.) tissue cut perpendicular to the length of organ
oblique section tissue cut at angle between longitudinal and cross sections
four basic types of tissue epithelial, connective, muscle, nervous
matrix (extracellular material) is composed of fibrous proteins, clear gel called ground substance, tissue fluid, extracellular fluid, interstitial fluid, or tissue gel
Consists of a flat sheet of closely adhering cells epithelial tissue
One or more cells thick epithelial tissue
Upper surface usually exposed to the environment or an internal space in the body epithelial tissue
Covers body surface and lines body cavities epithelial tissue
Forms the external and internal linings of many organs epithelial tissue
Constitutes most glands epithelial tissue
Extracellular material is so thin it is not visible with a light microscope epithelial tissue
allow no room for blood vessels epithelial tissue
Lie on a layer of loose connective tissue and depend on its blood vessels for nourishment and waste removal epithelial tissue
two types of epithelial tissue 1) covering and lining epithelium, 2) glandular epithelium
covers exposed surfaces eg. outer layer of skin covering and lining epithelium
covers organs inside body cavities covering and lining epithelium
covers inner lining of body cavities, tubes, ducts, blood vessels eg. inner lining of respiratory, digestive, urinary, reproductive tracts covering and lining epithelium
Protection from physical and chemical injury and microbial invasion, Sensation, Secretion, Absorption, Excretion, Diffusion, Cleaning, Reduces Friction functions of epithelial tissue
Cellularity – closely-packed cells ; little to no matrix characteristic of epithelial tissue
Continuous sheets joined by tight junctions and desmosomes characteristic of epithelial tissue
has a basement membrane characteristic of epithelial tissue
has basal and apical surfaces, supported by connective tissue characteristic of epithelial tissue
is avascular, innervated, regeneration (high mitotic rate), polarity characteristic of epithelial tissue
basement membrane layer between an epithelium and the underlying connective tissue; anchors the epithelium to the connective tissue below it
basal surface surface of an epithelial cell that faces the basement membrane
apical surface surface of an epithelial cell that faces away from the basement membrane
epithelial cell shapes squamous, cuboidal, columnar, transitional
epithelial cell layers simple: one layer, stratified: multiple layers, pseudostratified
thin and flat cells, scalelike. Allow for rapid passage of substances squamous
cube/hexagon -shaped cells. Tall as they are wide cuboidal
column-shaped cells. Much taller than are wide columnar
change shape from flat to cuboidal as organs (bladder) stretch and contract transitional
Four types of simple epithelia simple squamous, simple cuboidal, simple columnar, pseudostratified columnar
thin scaly cells squamous
square or round cells cuboidal
tall narrow cels columnar
wineglass-shaped mucus-secreting cells in simple columnar and pseudostratified epithelia goblet cells
Not all cells reach the free surface, Shorter cells are covered over by taller ones, Looks stratified, Every cell reaches the basement membrane pseudostratified columnar
simple squamous epithelial cell functions and characteristics Adapted for rapid diffusion, osmosis, filtration ( transport of substances), Secretes serous fluid, Located where there is little wear and tear
simple cuboidal epithelial cell functions and characteristics Adapted for absorption and secretion, mucus production and movement, Located in ducts and secretory portion of small ducts
simple columnar epithelial cell functions and characteristics Oval nuclei in basal half of cell; Brush border of microvilli, ciliated in some organs, may possess goblet cells; Located in areas of absorption and secretion; secretion of mucus
pseudostratified epithelial cell functions and characteristics looks multilayered, columnar; some not reaching free surface; all touch basement membrane; nuclei at several levels; with cilia and goblet cells, sometimes augmented by glands; secretes and propels mucus
Range from 2 to 20 or more layers of cells stratified epithelia
Some cells resting directly on others - Only the deepest layer attaches to the basement membrane stratified epithelia
four types of stratified epithelia stratified squamous, stratified cuboidal, stratified columnar, transitional epithelium
most widespread epithelia in the body stratified epithelia
deepest layers of this tissue type undergo continuous mitosis stratified epithelia
characteristics of stratified squamous superficial layer : flat cells; deep layers : cells vary in shape; basal cells replicate constantly
Protects delicate tissues in areas subject to abrasion stratified squamous
two types of stratified squamous cells keratinized and nonkeratinized
on skin surface (epidermis), abrasion resistant, resists water loss and pathogen entry keratinized stratified squamous cells
lacks surface layer of dead cells. Found in esophagus, tongue, oral mucosa, vagina nonkeratinized stratified squamous cells
Multilayered epithelium surface cells that change from round to flat when stretched transitional
A type of tissue in which cells usually occupy less space than the extracellular material connective tissue
Most abundant, widely distributed, and histologically variable of the primary tissues connective tissue
Binds organs to each other, supports and protects organs connective tissue
Most cells of this tissue are not in direct contact with each other connective tissue
arise from mesenchyme connective tissue
Highly vascular—richly supplied with blood vessels connective tissue
Regeneration: able but not as rapid as epithelial tissue connective tissue
Structural framework and support for organs connective tissue
Physical protection – cranium, ribs, sternum connective tissue
Packing (fills spaces between organs) connective tissue
Storage (of lipids, water, electrolytes, calcium, phosphorus) connective tissue
Defense (WBCs enter this tissue from blood) connective tissue
Binding of organs – tendons and ligaments connective tissue
associated with movement, repair, insulation, heat production, and transport inside the body connective tissue
structural components of fibrous connective tissue cells, ground substance, protein fibers
may be fluid, semi fluid, gelatinous, fibrous, calcified the extracellular matrix of fibrous connective tissue
produce fibers and ground substance in fibrous connective tissue fibroblasts
phagocytize foreign material in fibrous connective tissue (arise from WBC called monocytes) macrophages
cells in bone (a type of fibrous connective tissue) osteoblasts, osteocytes
cells in cartilage (a type of fibrous connective tissue) chondroblasts, chondrocytes
synthesize disease fighting antibodies (arise from lymphocytes) in fibrous connective tissue plasma cells
develop from monocytes in fibrous connective tissue mast cells
store fat molecules (triglycerides) in fibrous connective tissue adipose cells
produce melanin, found in fibrous connective tissue melanocytes
Most abundant of the body’s proteins—25%; Tough, flexible, high tensile strength, resist stretching; Tendons, ligaments, deep layer of skin - mostly collagen; Less visible in matrix of cartilage and bone collagenous fibers
Thin collagen fibers coated with glycoprotein; Reticular = network; Form framework of such organs as spleen & lymph nodes reticular fibers
Made of protein called elastin; Thinner than collagenous fibers; Branch and rejoin each other; Allows stretch and recoil; Yellow fibers—fresh elastic fibers elastic fibers
fills space between cells & contains the fibers ground substance
Usually gelatinous to rubbery consistency; may be viscous (blood), semisolid (cartilage), or solid (bone); From three classes of large molecules ground substance
three large classes of molecules that form ground substance Glycosaminoglycans; proteoglycan; adhesive glycoproteins
Role of regulating H2O & electrolyte balance in tissues glycosaminoglycans
Forms thick colloids that create strong structural bond between cells and extracellular macromolecules; holds tissues together proteoglycan
bind components of tissues together adhesive glycoproteins
classification of connective tissue - two types Embryonic connective tissue; Mature Connective tissues (CT proper)
developing from mesoderm of embryo. Differentiates into blood vessels, blood related organs and connective tissue Mesenchymal CT
Supports blood vessels of umbilical cords in developing fetus. Mucous CT: Wharton’s Jelly
classification of connective tissue - two types Embryonic connective tissue; Mature Connective tissues (CT proper)
developing from mesoderm of embryo. Differentiates into blood vessels, blood related organs and connective tissue Mesenchymal CT
Supports blood vessels of umbilical cords in developing fetus. Mucous CT: Wharton’s Jelly
Loose fibers; Much gel-like ground substance between cells Loose connective tissue
two types of loose connective tissue Areolar; Reticular
Densely packed fibers; Fibers fill spaces between cells; Types vary in fiber orientation Dense connective tissue
two types of dense connective tissue Dense regular CT; Dense irregular CT
Loose irregular fibrous CT; fewer fibers going in all directions; Most widely distributed. Loose Connective Tissue: Areolar
Subcutaneous layer; around capillaries, organs, joints, between muscles loose connective tissue: areolar
Cushions shock, allow movement of skin over muscle. loose connective tissue: areolar
Supporting and binding other tissues loose connective tissue: areolar
Holding body fluids loose connective tissue: areolar
Storing nutrients as fat (in fat cells) loose connective tissue: areolar
Underlies all epithelia, in serous membranes, between muscles, passageways for nerves and blood vessels loose connective tissue: areolar
reticular collagen fibers only- thinner, branched Loose Connective Tissue: Reticular
Provides the architectural framework (stroma) of bone marrow loose connective tissue: reticular
Forms soft internal skeleton that supports other cell types loose connective tissue: reticular
Densely packed collagen fibers arranged in same direction with compressed fibroblast nuclei Fibrous Connective Tissue – dense regular
In Tendons, aponeuroses - attach muscles to bones; In ligaments hold bones together Fibrous Connective Tissue – dense regular
freely branching elastic fibers; elasticity; provides strength Dense Elastic CT
Allows expansion and contraction of organs, cushions shocks, stabilizes positions of vertebrae. Dense Elastic CT
Found underlying transitional epithelia & in walls of blood vessels Dense Elastic CT
Densely packed, randomly arranged, collagen fibers and few visible cells Fibrous Connective Tissue - Dense irregular
Withstands unpredictable stresses Fibrous Connective Tissue - Dense irregular
Withstands stress in many directions Fibrous Connective Tissue - Dense irregular
In dermis of skin; submucosa of the digestive tract; fibrous capsules or organs and of joints Fibrous Connective Tissue - Dense irregular
adipocytes are the dominant cell type adipose tissue
Highly vascularized; very little matrix adipose tissue
Space between adipocytes is occupied by areolar tissue, reticular tissue, and blood capillaries adipose tissue
the body’s primary energy reservoir adipose tissue
Empty-looking cells with thin margins; nucleus pressed against cell membrane adipose tissue
Energy storage, insulation, cushioning functions of adipose tissue
Anchors and cushions organs ex. eyeballs, kidneys adipose tissue
Contributes to body contours—female breast and hips adipose tissue
Supportive connective tissue with flexible, rubbery matrix cartilage
Gives shape to ear, tip of nose, and larynx cartilage
in cartilage, produce matrix and surround themselves until they become trapped in little cavities (lacunae) chrondroblasts
cartilage cells in lacunae chrondrocytes
sheath of dense irregular CT that surrounds elastic and most hyaline cartilage (not articular cartilage) perichondrium
Contains a reserve population of chondroblasts that contribute to cartilage growth throughout life perichondrium
implications of cartilage having no blood vessels Diffusion brings nutrients and removes wastes; Heals slowly
Matrix rich in chondroitin sulfate and contains collagen fibers cartilage
Clear, glassy microscopic appearance because of unusual fineness of the collagen fibers; Usually covered by perichondrium hyaline cartilage
most abundant cartilage BUT weakest of 3 cartilages hyaline cartilage
the ground substance of this type of cartilage is gel hyaline cartilage
Articular cartilage, costal cartilage, trachea, larynx, fetal skeleton nose, trachea, pharynx examples of hyaline cartilage
Cushions, allows flexibility, support, reinforces, reduced friction & shock absorption in joints functions of hyaline cartilage
Eases joint movement, holds airway open, moves vocal cords functions of hyaline cartilage
type of cartilage containing large amounts of elastic fibers elastic cartilage
type of cartilage covered with perichondrium elastic cartilage
type of cartilage providing flexible, elastic support elastic cartilage
type of cartilage that maintains shape of structures, while allowing great flexibility elastic cartilage
elastic cartilage is located... external ear; epiglottis
Strongest of 3 cartilages fibrocartilage
type of cartilage that contains large, coarse bundles of collagen fibers for rigidity and stiffness fibrocartilage
type of cartilage that lacks perichondrium fibrocartilage
Resists compression and absorbs shock functions of fibrocartilage
Pubic symphysis, menisci of knee, and intervertebral discs locations of fibrocartilage
the term bone can refer to these two things 1) An organ of the body: femur, mandible; composed of multiple tissue types, 2) Bone tissue (osseous tissue) makes up most of mass of bone
two forms of osseous tissue spongy bone, compact bone
type of osseous tissue that is spongy in appearance spongy bone
type of osseous tissue that has delicate struts of bone: trabeculae spongy bone
type of osseous tissue that is covered by compact bone spongy bone
location of spongy bone found in heads of long bones and in middle of flat bones such as the sternum
type of osseous tissue that is denser, calcified tissue with no visible spaces compact bone
type of osseous tissue that has a more complex arrangement compact bone
type of osseous tissue in which cells and matrix surround vertically oriented blood vessels in long bones compact bone
arranged in cylinders that surround central canal that run longitudinally through shafts of long bones compact bone
in compact bone, blood vessels and nerves travel through... the central canal
bones + cartilage + joints = protects delicate structures
Bone + muscle = movement
function of red bone marrow hematopoiesis
function of yellow bone marrow store triglycerides
two forms of liquid connective tissue blood, lymph
the connective tissue extracellular matrix in blood is composed of blood plasma (water + dissolved enzymes, proteins)
cells involved in blood (as connective tissue) WBC, RBC, Platelets (soluble proteins)
Extracellular fluid in lymphatic vessels lymph
the connective tissue extracellular matrix of lymph blood plasma
the cells involved in lymph (as connective tissue) WBC
the fibers involved in lymph connective tissue liquid proteins
excitability, a characteristic of all living cells, is developed to the highest degree in... nervous and muscular tissues
electrical charge difference (voltage) that occurs across the plasma membranes, the basis for their excitation membrane potential
cells respond quickly to outside stimulus by means of changes in... membrane potential
changes result in rapid transmission of signals to other cells nerves
changes result in contraction, shortening of the cell muscle
specialized for communication by electrical and chemical signals nervous tissue
location of nervous tissue In CNS (brain, spinal cord) and PNS (nerves)
in general, lack capacity to regenerate nervous tissue
involved in coordinating and controlling many body activities nervous tissue
two cell types of nervous tissue neurons, neuroglia (glial)
nervous tissue cells that detect stimuli & respond quickly neurons
nervous tissue cells that conduct nerve impulses rapidly to other cells neurons
nervous tissue supporting cells neuroglia
nervous tissue cells that protect and assist neurons neuroglia
nervous tissue cells that are the "Housekeepers" of nervous system neuroglia
parts of a neuron neurosoma (cell body); axon; dendrite
Elongated cells that are specialized to contract in response to stimulation characteristic of muscle tissue
muscle fibers usually arranged in bundles/layers that are surrounded by CT characteristic of muscle tissue
Primary job is to exert physical force on other tissues and organs muscle tissue
Creates movements involved in body and limb movement, digestion, waste elimination, breathing, speech, and blood circulation muscle tissue
is vascular tissue involved with maintaining posture, pumping blood, and is an important source of body heat muscle tissue
tissue type that becomes specialized in adults muscle tissue
tissue type that lack capacity to regenerate to some extent muscle tissue
three types of muscle tissue skeletal, cardiac, and smooth
voluntary striated muscle tissue skeletal
involuntary striated muscle tissue cardiac
multinucleated muscle tissue skeletal
mononucleated striated muscle tissue cardiac
mononucleated nonstriated muscle tissue smooth
muscle tissue with long cylindrical cells skeletal
muscle tissue where cells fuse end to end cardiac
muscle tissue with intercalated discs cardiac
muscle tissue attached to bones or skin skeletal
muscle tissue located in walls of heart cardiac
muscle tissue with spindle-shaped cells smooth
muscle tissue with a central nucleus smooth
muscle tissue located in the walls of hollow organs smooth
cell or organ that secretes substances for use elsewhere in the body or releases them for elimination from the body gland
Composed of epithelial tissue in a connective tissue framework and capsule gland
May produce product that it synthesizes (digestive enzymes) or products that it removes from tissues and modifies (urine) gland
product useful to the body produced by glands secretion
waste product removed from tissues by glands excretion
secrete their products (eg. excluding hormones) into ducts which lead directly into the external environment exocrine glands
secrete their products (ie hormones) directly into bloodstream (ductless glands) or release hormones (paracrine) that have local effect endocrine glands
cell + contents released holocrine gland
form secretory product & release it merocrine gland
part of cell pinches off to form the secretion apocrine gland
produce and secrete a non- viscous, thin watery fluid serous gland
secrete mucin (glycoprotein) mucous gland
mucin + water = mucus (sticky secretion)
unicellular mucous glands goblet cells
contain serous + mucus cells mixed glands
cells that produce a mixture of two secretions mixed glands
Release whole cells, sperm and egg cells cytogenic glands
have vesicles that release their secretion by exocytosis Merocrine glands (eccrine glands)
also primarily use a merocrine mode of secretion apocrine glands
cells accumulate a product and then the entire cell disintegrates holocrine glands
Secretion of a mixture of cell fragments and synthesized substance holocrine glands
organs which have both endocrine and exocrine functions Liver, gonads, pancreas
glands found in epithelium that is predominantly nonsecretory unicellular glands
Mucus-secreting goblet or endocrine cells of stomach and small intestine examples of unicellular glands
unicellular glands can be... endocrine or exocrine
thin sheets of tissue that cover the body, line body cavities, and cover organs within the cavities in hollow organs body membranes
organs which have both endocrine and exocrine functions Liver, gonads, pancreas
glands found in epithelium that is predominantly nonsecretory unicellular glands
these glands can be endocrine or exocrine unicellular glands
Mucus-secreting goblet or endocrine cells of stomach and small intestine examples of unicellular glands
consist of epithelial tissue and the connective tissue to which it is attached Epithelial tissue membranes
examples of epithelial tissue membranes a) mucous membranes b) serous membranes c) cutaneous membranes
contain only connective tissue connective tissue membranes
examples of connective tissue membranes a) Synovial membranes b) meninges
lines passages that open to the external environment mucosa (mucous membranes)
mucosa membranes line these Digestive, respiratory, urinary, and reproductive tracts
of mucosa, may be absorptive, ciliated, or other cell types the epithelium
of mucosa, areolar connective tissue lamina propria
of mucosa, the smooth muscle layer Muscularis mucosae
membrane which has absorptive, secretory, and protective functions mucosa
in mucosa, these cells produce mucus goblet cells
lines body cavities that do not open directly to the outside serous membranes (serosa)
Covers organs and lines walls of body cavities serosa
membrane type of which endothelium lines blood vessels and heart serosa
membrane type of which mesothelium lines body cavities (pericardium, peritoneum, and pleura) serosa
simple squamous epithelium resting on a layer of areolar tissue serosa
Epithelium secretes serous fluid that arises from blood serosa
Serous fluid lubricates membranes and reduces friction and abrasion when organs in cavities move against each other or the cavity wall serosa
largest membrane in the body cutaneous membrane (the skin)
Stratified squamous epithelium (epidermis) resting on a layer of connective tissue (dermis) cutaneous membrane (skin)
has a relatively dry layer that serves a protective function cutaneous membrane
line the cavities of freely movable joints eg shoulder, elbow, and knee synovial membranes
connective tissue membrane with no layer of epithelium synovial membrane
secrete synovial fluid which lubricates cartilage on ends of bones synovial membrane
composed of Dura mater, arachnoid mater, pia mater meninges
covering brain and spinal cord meninges
Increase in the number of cells or the existing cells grow larger tissue growth
tissue growth through cell multiplication hyperplasia
enlargement of preexisting cells hypertrophy
examples of hypertrophy Muscle growth through exercise; Accumulation of body fat
development of a tumor (neoplasm) neoplasia
can be benign or malignant; composed of abnormal, nonfunctional tissue neoplasia
Tissues can change types, but only... within certain limits
Unspecialized tissues of embryo become specialized mature types differentiation
Changing from one type of mature tissue to another metaplasia
undifferentiated cells that are not yet performing any specialized function stem cells
Have potential to differentiate into one or more types of mature functional cells stem cells
diversity of mature cell types to which stem cells can give rise Developmental plasticity
two types of embryonic stem cells totipotent, pluripotent
type of embryonic stem cell, has potential to develop into any type of fully differentiated human cell totipotent
type of embryonic stem cell, can develop into any type of cell in the embryo pluripotent
undifferentiated cells in tissues of adults adult stem cells
types of adult stem cells multipotent, unipotent
type of adult stem cell, example: bone marrow producing several blood cell types multipotent
type of adult stem cell, most limited plasticity; example: only epidermal cells produced unipotent
Process of restoration and function of tissue after injury tissue repair
tissue repair occurs in two ways regeneration; fibrosis (scarring)
replacement of dead or damaged cells by the same type of cell as before, restores normal function regeneration of injured tissue
Replacement with scar tissue by CT; does not restore normal function fibrosis (scarring)
cells with a continuous capacity to regenerate epithelial tissue cells
bone (connective tissue) can regenerate... rapidly
cartilage (connective tissue) can regenerate... but less rapidly than bone
tissue type with poor capacity for regeneration muscle tissue
muscle tissue type that can regenerate, but not rapidly skeletal muscle
muscle tissue type that cannot regenerate, lacking satellite cells cardiac muscle
muscle tissue type with proliferation but slower than epithelial cells smooth muscle
tissue type with the poorest capacity for renewal nervous tissue
three stages of regenerative tissue repair inflammation, granulation, regeneration
tissue repair, during inflammation Pain, swelling, redness, heat; Local vasodilation; Severed blood vessels bleed into cut; Mast cells & damaged cells release histamine; Increases blood flow to area; Makes capillaries more permeable
during tissue repair, blood plasma seeps into wound carrying Antibodies, blood cells; Clotting proteins – clot forms (Inhibits spread of pathogens to healthy tissue)
during tissue repair, scab formation offers... temporary protection
during tissue repair, macrophages phagocytize and digest tissue debris
Granulation tissue forms, replacing clot during granulation stage of tissue repair
New capillaries sprout from nearby vessels and grow into wound durring granulation stage of tissue repair
Deeper portions of the wound become infiltrated by capillaries & fibroblasts during granulation stage of tissue repair
begins 3-4 days after an injury and lasts up to 2 weeks granulation stage of tissue repair
Surface epithelial cells around wound multiply and migrate into wound area beneath scab during regeneration stage of tissue repair
Epithelium regenerates under scab during regeneration stage of tissue repair
Connective tissue undergoes fibrosis, though scar tissue may or may not show through epithelium during regeneration stage of tissue repair
Remodeling (maturation) phase begins several weeks after injury and may last up to 2 years during regeneration stage of tissue repair
scarring occurs... In extensive tissue damage
Both parenchymal cells and CT are active during scarring
Occurs when fibroblasts are active scarring
Results in formation of new connective tissue scarring
another name for scar formation fibrosis
examples of labile tissues bone marrow, kidneys, GI epithelium
tissues in which cells are continuously dividing labile tissues
these tissues easily regenerate after injury labile tissues
these tissues contain a pool of stem cells labile tissues
examples of stable tissues Liver, kidneys, pancreas
these tissues have cells with a limited ability to divide and regenerate (except liver) stable tissues
examples of permanent tissues Neurons, cardiac muscle
these tissues have cells which cannot proliferate permanent tissues
these tissues cannot regenerate (so injury always leads to scar) permanent tissues
a way in which cardiac tissue can regenerate stem cell migrate to heart from blood
shrinkage of a tissue through a loss in cell size or number atrophy
Senile atrophy occurs through normal aging
Disuse atrophy occurs from lack of use
premature, pathological death of tissue due to trauma, toxins, or infections necrosis
sudden death of tissue when blood supply is cut off infarction
tissue necrosis due to insufficient blood supply gangrene
bed sore or pressure sore decubitus ulcer
anaerobic bacterial infection that causes tissue necrosis gas gangrene
programmed cell death apoptosis
Normal death of cells that have completed their function and best serve the body by dying and getting out of the way apoptosis
what happens to cell remnants after apoptosis Phagocytized by macrophages and other cells
number of cells that die by apoptosis billions
apoptosis can occur because... Every cell has a built-in “suicide program”
Extracellular suicide signal binds receptor protein in the plasma membrane called... Fas
Fas activates enzymes endonuclease chops up DNA and protease destroys proteins
artificial production of tissues and organs in the lab for implantation in the human body tissue engineering
Framework of collagen or biodegradable polyester fibers are seeded with human cells and grown in a 'bioreactor' (like a mouse) process of tissue engineering
Created by: jcoletaylor



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