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ST110 A&P CH. 5

Integumentary System

integument means covering
integumentary system consists of skin and appendages
why is the skin a membrane because a thin layer of tissue that covers the entire body
what is the largest organ of the body skin
what are the three main functions of skin protection, regulation, receptors
first line of dense from microbes, chemicals, UV rays are all to be consider what protection
what protects us to a degree melanin
what is a function of regulation body tempature
What is included into body tempature radiation, conduction, convection, hypothermia, hyperthermia
what is hypothermia the condition of having an abnormally low body temperature, typically one that is dangerously low.
what is hyperthemia the condition of having a body temperature greatly above normal. above 104 degrees
what is a function of regulation vitamin D
how do you get vitamin d UV rays from the sun stimulate the production of vitamin d progenitor molecules by the skin. then molecules travel to liver and kidneys where they mature into vitamin D
vitamin D is essential for what metabolism of calcium
what two organs mature vitamin D kidneys and liver
what is a function of receptors sensation,
what all does sensation include touch/pressure, pain, warmth, cold
what acts as receptors for sensation nerve endings
what a three types of receptors thermoreceptors,nociceptors, mechanoreceptors
thermoreceptors means temperature
nociceptors means pain
mechanoreceptors mean touch/pressure/strech
receptors send messages to where and for what cerebral cortex for interpretation
merkel discs (cells) mean touch impulses
pacinian corpuscles means sense pressure and vibrations
messiner's corpuscles means sense changes in texture and slow vibrations
ruffini corpuscles means senses slipping and stretching
krause end blubs are also known as mucocutaneous corpuscles
krause end bulbs mean detect temperature
what are the structures of the integumentary system epidermis, dermis, appendages of the skin
what is located in the dermis subcutaneous layer
what is located in the appendages of the skin sweat glands, sebaceous glands, hair, nails
squamous epithelium is like scales, and is tightly packed together
what is the outer most layer of the skin and is avascular epidermis
what is composed of the epidermis stratified squamous keratinized epithelium
does the epidermis contain blood vessels no
what are the layers of the epidermis (in order) stratum corneum, stratum lucidum, stratum granulosum, stratum spinosum, stratum basale
the deepest layer of the epidermis stratum germinativum
what contains the only cells that perform mitosis stratum germinativum
stratum is also known as stratum basale
what is the stratum basale layer that rests on the superficial fascia
what layer contains melanocytes stratum germinativum
what is produced in the stratum germinativum melanin
many layers and has spiny-shaped cells is known as what layer stratum spinosum
stratum granulosum contains what 2-3 layers thick, flattened cells, granules accumulate here
where is the stratum lucidum located just below the stratum corneum
stratum lucidum contains what cells that are transparent and flat, 1-2 layers thick
the outermost layer of the epidermis is startum corneum
stratum corneum consist of what dead cells converted to protein
stratum corneum is surround by lipids
what is constantly being sloughed off dandruff
how is the thickness of the stratum conreum determinded by the amount of stimulation or pressure
callus means area exposed to much abrasion and friction
corn means abrasions on bony prominences of the foot
where is dandruff being constantly sloughed off at stratum corneum
what is the deeper layer of the skin dermis
dermis is also known as corium
where is the dermis located below the epidermis
what does the dermis contain capillary vessels, nerves, hair, collicles, and glands
what is the dermis composed of loose fibrous connective tissue
how many layers is the dermis divided into two
what are the divisions of the dermis papillary layer and reticular layer
what is a subdivison of the papillary layer dermal papilae
what does the dermis look like cells loosely packed together (mostly connective tissue)
subcutaneous layer is also known as hypodermis
what does the subcutaneous layer connect dermis to underlying structures
what does the subcutaneous layer consist of areolar and adipose tissue
cells that store fat are known as adipocytes
subcutaneous layer does and acts as what insulates from cold and acts as cushion for internal organs
whats a characteristic of all mammals hair
genetic factors relate to what amount of hair growth
what layer of cells is responsible for mitosis and continuously is pushed up fro the basement membrane deepest layer
what does hair growth begin at hair bulb
how long does scalp hair grow and rest for grow: 3 years rest: 1-2 years
what allows for new hair growth presense of the hair follicles
what are considered to be hair areas cuticle, cortex, medulla, shaft, hair root, arrector pili muscle
cuticle means outermost portion
cortex means underneath the cuticle
medulla means central portion
shaft means visible portion
hair root means inside hair follicle in the stratum germinativum
arrector pili muscle means- attached to hair follicle
what controls if the hair is curly, straight, kinky genetics
what is determined by heredity and some environmental factors color of the hair
alopecia means partial or complete absense of hair from areas of the body where it normally grows;baldness
what is excessive hairness, especially in women hirsutism
onxy/onych means nail
nails are made up of very hard keratinized cells
what are consider nail areas lunula, nail body, nail root, cuticle, free edge
lunula means white half moor shaped area at nail base
nail body means visble area
nail root means inside the nail bed
cuticle means layer of stratum corneum extending over the nail body
what are along the walls of hair follicles sebaceous glands
what produces sebum sebaceous glands
what are oily substances that lubricates the skin sebum
vernix caseosa and acne are apart of the sebaceous glands
where are sebaceous glands located throughout the body and have the largest number in the face
sebaceous glands are very active during what puberty
what happens to the sebaceous glands during puberty excess sebum, glands become clogged (blackheads), and easily infected (pimples)
what is the largest sebaceous gland called and where is it located meibomian gland, eyelids
sweat glands are also known as sudoriferous glands
what are the two main types of sudoriferous glands merocrine and apocrine
where are sudoriferous glands mostly found in most body regions except margins of lips and head of penis
what do sudoriferous glands consist of and produces what secretory portion and excretory and body odor
modified glands of the sudoriferous glands are ceruminour, ciliary, mammary
where is the ceruminous glands located in dermis of the auditory canal
what does the ceruminous gland secrete yellow substance cerumen
what is cerumen ear wax yellow substancce
what does cerumen prevent auditory canal and tympanic membrane from drying out
what is the blood supply made up of arterioles
what are arterioles used for maintaining body tempertature
vasodilate means increasing blood flow to the dermis, transferring heat to the skin surface to escape from the body
melanin, albinism, and cyanosis are all what skin pigmenation
concentrations determine the variations in skin color of individuals and races as well as suntans and freckles is known as melanin
recessive gene or mutation that prevents the production of melanin is known as albinism
caused by a lack of blood oxygen or decreased blood flow; turns skin blueish-gray color is known as cyanosis
what do langerhans cells do attack cancer cells, phaocytize bacteria that enter through breaks in the skin, attract T-cells (important in allergic reactions)
ringworm fungus; examples: athletes foot and jock itich
psoriasis unknown cause, red patches covered with thick dry scales, overproduction of epithelial cells
warts human papillomavirus, uncontrolled growth of epidermal tissue, direct contact
cold sores herpes simplex virus, can be active or inactive
impetigo staphylococcus aureus, blisters erupt with pus, direct contact, highly contagious
shingles herpes zoster, remains inactive until triggered, vesicular skin eruptions
vitiligo irregular patches of non-pigmented skin
skin cancer UV radiation
types of skin cancer basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, malignant melanoma
basal cell carcinoma means topical, easily treated
squamous cell carcinoma giant tumor that contains much kertain, can spread
malignant melanoma most dangerous, starts with a mole, as a dark nodule, or spreading of glat lesion
kaposi sarcome rare form of skin cancer that is usually associated with AIDS
what is one of the most serious and frequent problems to affect the skin burn
burns can happen by heat or cold, chemicals, gases, electricity, and radiation
what are burns classified by degree indicating depth of burn
first degree burns are partial thickness, affects only epidermis, heals 1 week, no scaring or blisters
what are the symptoms of first degree burns slight swelling, erythema, pain
second dgree burns involve what epidermis and dermis
superficial burns include no scare and heal in about 2 weeks
deep burns include scar, long heal time, may require debridement and skin graft, and prone to infection (strict aseptic technique)
what are the symptoms of second degree burns extreme pain, blisters, swelling
third degree burns involve what all layers of skin plus subcutaneous tissue layer
what are the symptoms of third degree burn shock, dehydration, possibly pain
fourth degree burns are also known as what char burns
what could fourth degree burns involve muscle, tendon, possibly damage to bone
what is treatment for fourth degree burns emergency debridement, irrigation, and dressings
what is the treatment and recovery of a burn all depends on the total area involved and the severity of the burn
"rule of nines" determines the extent of a burn injury
what are symptoms of aging of skin thickness of dermis decreases, skin less elastic, fat loss from hypodermis, sagging wrinkling of skin, decreased melanin production, blood flow to skin, vitamin D production
what are the results of aging of the skin sagging/wrinkling of skin, sensitive to cold, hair turns gray, skin becomes thinner and translucent, bones become brittle
decubitis ulcer pressure sore, bed sore
Created by: casenichole