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A&P Exam 2

Chapters 4&5

Tissues are Groups of cells with a common embryonic origin that function together to carry out specialized activities
Intracellular Junctions Connect adjacent cells mechanically at the cell membrane or through cytoskeletal elements within and between cells
Tight Junctions Found where a leakproof seal is needed between cells - They keep materials form leaking out of organs like the stomach and bladder
Adherens Junctions Make an adhesion belt that keeps tissue form separating as they stretch and contract - Cadherin is a glycoprotein that forms a belt-like Plaque
Desmosomes Act as a spot weld, they use cadherin glycoprotiens to hook into the cytoplasm
Gap Junctions Pores that allow small substances like ions to pass between cells
The 4 Basic Tissues - Epithelial Tissue - Connective Tissue - Muscular Tissue - Nervous Tissue
Epithelial Tissue Covers body surface and form glands and line hollow organ, body cavities, and ducts
Connective Tissue (C.T.) Protect, support, and bind organs - Fat is a type of CT that stores energy
Muscular Tissue Generate the y physical force needed to make body structures move
Nervous Tissue Detect changes in the body and respond by generating nerve impulses
Epithelium is used for? - Line surfaces and form protective barriers - Secrete mucous, hormones All have a free apical surface and an attached basal surface
The basal layer of the epithelium secretes a? Basal lamina
Squamous Fat, wide "paving stone" cells
Cuboidal Cells as tall as they are wide
Columnar Cells taller than they are wide
Simple One layer. All the cells in contact with basement membrane
Pseudostratified Appears to have layers but in reality all cells go form the apex to the base
Stratified 2 or more layers. Only basal layer in contact with basement membrane
Simple Squamous Epithelium Composed of a single layer of fat cells Found in: - Air sacs of lungs - Lining of blood vessels
Simple Cuboidal Epithelium Is composed of a single layer of cube shaped cells
Simple Columnar Epithelium Forms a single layer of column-like cells - Cilia -Microvilli
Pseudostratified Epithelium appears to have layers, due to nuclei which are various depths, in reality, call cells are attached to the basement membrane in a single layer
Stratified Squamous Epithelium Has an apical surface that is made up of squamous (flat) cells
Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium Has an apical surface made up of two or more layers of cube-shaped cells
Stratified Columnar Epithelium Is very rare
Transitional Epithelium Change shape depending on the state of stretch in the tissue
Connective Tissue The most abundant and widely distributed tissue in the body, they are also the most heterogenous of the the tissue types
Collagen The main protein in CT and the most abundant protein in the body making up about 25% of total protein content
All CT Share a Common Theme - Sparse cells - Surrounded by and extracellular matrix
Fibroblasts The most numerous cell of connective tissue. These cells secrete protein fibers (collagen, elastin, & reticular fibers)
Chondrocytes Make the various cartilagious CT
Adipocytes CT that store triglycerides
Osteocytes CT that make bone
CT cells secrete 3 common fibers - Collagen - Elastin - Reticular
Classification of Embryonic connective tissue - Mesenchyme - Mucous connective tissue
Classification of Mature connective tissue - Loose connective tissue - Dense connective tissue - Cartilage - Bone - Blood
Mesenchyme Give rise to all other connective tissues
Mucous CT (Wharton's Jelly) is a gelatinous substance within the umbilical cord and is a rich source of stem cells
Areolar Connective Tissue A loose connective tissue, is the most widely distributed in the body. It contains several types of cells and all three fiber types
Adipose Tissue A loos connective tissue, is located in the subcutaneous layer deep in the skin around organs and joints
Reticular Connective Tissue A loose connective tissue, is a network of interlacing reticular fibers and cells
Dense irregular connective tissue A dense connective tissue, consists predominantly of fibroblasts and collagen fibers randomly arranged
Dense regular connective tissue A dense connective tissue,copprise tendons, ligaments, and other strong attachments where the need for strength along one axis is mandatory
Elastic Connective tissue A dense connective tissue, consists predominantly of fibroblasts and freely branching elastic fibers
Cartilage A tissue with poor blood supply that grows slowly. When injured of inflamed, repair is slow
Hyaline cartilage The most abundant type of cartilage, it covers the ends of long bones and parts of the ribs, nose, trachea, bronchi, and larynx
Firbrocartilage With its thick bundles of collagen fibers, is a very strong, tough cartilage
Elastic Cartilage Consists of chondrocytes located in a threadlike network of elastic fibers
Neurons and Muscle fibers Are considered excitable cells
Epithelial Membrane The simplest organs in the body, constructed of ONLY epithelium and a little bit of connective tissue
Epithelial membrane is comprised of? Epithelium + Connective tissue
Mucous Membrane Line the "interior" body surfaces open to the outside
Serous Membrane Line some internal surfaces
Synovial membranes Enclose certain joints and are made of connective tissue only
Epithelial Glands Another example of simple organs
Exocrine Glands Secrete substances through ducts to the surface of the skin or into the lumen of a hollow organ
Merocrine Secretion of the most common manner of secretion - the gland releases its product by exocytosis and no part of the gland is lost or damaged
Apocrine Glands Bud their secretions off though the plasma membrane, producing membrane-bound vesicles in the lumen of the gland
Holocrine Secretions Produced by rupture of the plasma membrane, releasing the entire cellular contents into the lumen and killing the cell
Parenchymal Cells Cells of an organ consist of that tissue which conducts the specific function of the organ
Stroma Cells Cells of the stroma are everything else connective tissue, blood vessels, nerves
Besides protection the skin contributes to - Regulation of body temp. - Sensory perceptions -Synthesis of Vit. D - Emotional expression
3 Layers of Skin -Epidermis -Dermis -Hypodermis (subQ)
The epidermis is composed of? Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
Keratinocytes Make up 90% of the cells, they produce keratin
Melanocytes Produce the pigment melanin that protects against damage by ultraviolet radiation
Langerhans Cells Are macrophages that originated in the red bone marrow. They are involved in immune response
Merkel Cells Function in the sensation of touch along with the other adjacent tactile discs
Stratum Basale Or stratum germinativum is always the bottom (deepest) layer, continuous cell division occurs here and produces all the other layers
Stratum Spinosum A layer of 8-10 keratinocytes
Stratum granulosum The 3rd layer, are filled with granules of keratin
Stratum Lucidum The 4th layer but us only present in the thick skin
Stratum Corneum Is always the outermost, composed of approximately 20 layers of flat cell-remnants
Keratinization Is the process of replacing viable cells in the stratum basale with more and more of the waxy keratin protein as cells move from the deepest layer to the surface layer
Thin (hairy) skin Covers all body regions except the palms, palmar surfaces of digits and soles
Thick (hairless) skin Covers the palms, palmar surfaces of digits, and soles
Melanin Produced by melanocytes in the stratum basale
Nevi (birthmarks or moles) are chronic lesions of the skin-they are by definition benign
Vitiligo Is a chronic disorder that causes depigmentation patches in the skin
Albinism is a congenital disorder characterized by the complete or partial absence of pigment in the skin
Reticular region Consists of dense irregular connective tissue contaning collagen and elastic fibers, adipose cells, hair follicles, nerves, subaceous (oil) glands, and sudoriferous (sweat) glands
Lines of cleavage Tension lines in the skin that indicate the predominant direction of underlying collagen fibers
Subcutaneous Layer Also known as the hypodermis, is attached to the skin in underlying tissues and organs
Epidermis (multi layers) Resists damage and offers protection to underlying tissues
Dermis (multi layers) Provides temperature stability and prevents dehydration
Superficially (Sensory Receptors) Merkel discs, free nerve endings, meissner corpuscles, and hairy root plexuses
Deep Pacininan corpuscles
Lanugo hair Fine, nonpigmented, downy hairs that cover the body of the fetus
Vellus hairs short, fine, pale hairs barley visible to the naked eye
Terminal hairs Long, coarse, heavily pigmented hairs
Subaceous (oil) glands Are connected to hair follicles and secrete sebum
Eccrine sweat glands The most numerous, they secrete a watery solution that helps to cool the body and eliminates small amounts of waste
Apocrine sweat glands Are located mainly in the skin of the axilla, groin, areolae, and bearded facial regions. They secrete a slightly viscous sweat
Eccrine sweat glands release sweat in response to An emotional stress such as fear or embarrassment
Aprocrine sweat glands release sweat in response to Emotional stress and sexual excitement
Ceruminous glands Are modified sweat glands located in the ear canal
Nails Composed of hard, keratinized epidermal cells
Nail Structure - Fee edge - Transparent nail body - Nail root embedded in a fold of skin
2 Kinds of wound healing? - Epidermal wound healing - Deep wound healing
Epidermal wound healing occurs following superficial wounds that affect only the epidermis
Deep wound healing Occurs when an injury extends to the dermis and subcutaneous layer
Burns Tissue damage caused by excessive heat
First-degree burn involves only the epidermis -no blistering (sunburn)
Second-degree burn destroys the epidermis and part of the dermis, with some skin functions lost -Redness, blister formation,edema
Third-degree burn Is a full thickness burn, destroys epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous layer. -Most skin functions are lost, and the region is numb
Major 3 degree burn 10% of body surface -Also any 3rd burn on the face, hands, feet , or perineum
Major 2 degree burn 25% of body surface
Victims normally die after percent of the body is burnt 70%
Aging -wrinkles develop -dehydragtion and cracking occurs -sweat production increases -gray hair and skin pigmentation -subcutaneous fat is lost -nails may also become more brittle
Created by: jforv



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