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The Endocrine System

lecture notes

Endocrine glands ductless glands that secrete their hormones directly into the bloodstream.
Hormones chemical catalysts
A chemical catalyst causes a reaction to occur
Hormones help maintain the body's internal environment within certain narrow ranges.
Homeostasis is the balancing act of hormones.
The pituitary gland is located at the base of the brain
The pituitary is the size of a pea.
The pituitary gland is AKA hypophysis or "master gland".
The pituitary gland (hypophysis) is called the "master gland" because its hormones control the functions of many other endocrine glands.
The pituitary gland (hypophysis) AKA the "master gland" is controlled by the hypothalamus (wife).
The pituitary gland is divided into two sections called the anterior and posterior lobes.
The anterior (front) lobe produces: GH which stands for growth hormone
Growth hormone (GH) stimulates cell metabolism causing cells to divide (replicate) and increase in size.
Significant amounts of growth hormone (GH) is secreted until the age of 20.
Insufficient amounts of growth hormone (GH) can cause dwarfism.
A synthetic growth hormone (GH) is called Humatrope AKA somatropin.
Excessive amounts of growth hormone (GH) can cause giantism.
TSH stands for thyroid stimulating hormone
Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) is AKA thyrotropin or T7.
Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) AKA thyrotropin or T7 stimulates the thyroid to produce its hormones.
ACTH stands for adrenocorticotropic hormone.
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulates the adrenal glands to produce their hormones.
MSH stands for melanocyte stimulation hormone.
Melanocyte stimulation hormone (MSH) stimulates the melanocytes to produce the skin pigment melanin.
A hereditary disorder characterized by an absence of melanin is called albinism.
FSH stands for follicle stimulating hormone.
Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) stimulates the ovaries to start the maturation process of a follicle (oocyte)into an ovum.
Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) stimulates the testes to create spermatozoa (spermatogenesis).
LH stands for leuteinizing hormone.
Leuteinizing hormone (LH) stimulates ovulation,
Leuteinizing hormone (LH) stimulates the production of progesterone to maintain pregnancy, and
Leuteinizing hormone (LH) stimulates the production of testosterone in males.
Lactogenic hormone AKA prolactin stimulates the production of milk AKA lactation.
The posterior (back) lobe of the pituitary produces ADH which stands for antiduretic hormone AKA vasopressin.
Antidiuretic hormones (ADH) stimulates the kidneys to conserve water.
Insufficient production of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) is called diabetes insipidus (DI)
Diabetes insipidus (DI) causes polyuria and polydipsia.
A synthetic antidiuretic hormone (ADH) is called pitressin AKA vasopressin.
The posterior (back) lobe of the pituitary also produces OT which stands for oxytocin.
Oxytocin (OT) stimulates the uterus to contract during labor.
A synthetic oxytocin (OT) is called pitocin AKA "Pit drip".
Oxytocin (OT) is also known as the binding hormone.
Binding refers to male-female and mother-neonate bonding.
The thyroid gland is located on the right and left sides of the trachea (windpipe) just inferior to the larynx (vocal chords).
Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) AKA thyrotropin or T7 produced by the pituitary (hypophysis) stimulates the thyroid gland to produce T4 AKA thyroxine, T3 AKA triiodothyronine and calcitonin.
T3 and T4 are both commonly referred to as thyroxine.
T3 and T4 (thyroxine) are responsible for the regulation of carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism.
Metabolism refers to the rate at which the body utilizes (burns) energy.
Hyperthyroidism is called Grave's disease.
Hypothyroidism is called myxedema.
A synthetic thyroxine (T3 + T4) is called Synthroid AKA levothyroxine.
Calcitonin is released from the thyroid when the blood calcium (Ca) level rises.
Calcitonin causes the deposit of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) into the bones.
The parathyroid glands are located in the posterior surface of the thyroid gland.
The parathyroid glands are the size of raisins.
The parathyroid glands secrete parathyroid hormone (PTH) AKA parathormone.
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) causes osteocytes (bone cells) to release stored calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) into the blood.
Release of parathyroid hormone (PTH) will occur when the blood calcium (Ca)level falls.
The adrenal glands are located just superior to the kidneys.
The adrenal glands are AKA suprarenal glands.
The inner portion of the addrenal glands is called the adrenal medulla.
The outer portion of the adrenal glands is called the adrenal cortex.
The adrenal medulla produces adrenaline AKA epineprine.
Adrenaline (epinephrine) contributes to the "fight or flight" response.
The "fight or flight" response includes 1.The breakdown of glycogen (in the liver) to glucose. 2.Tachycardia (fast heart).3. Tachypnea (fast breathing).4. Bronchodilation (increased size of bronchi and bronchioles). 5. Hypertension (elevated bolld pressure (BP) 6. Pallor (paleness).
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) released from the pituitary gland (hypophysis) stimulates the adrenal cortex to produce the corticosteroids 1. cortisol AKA hydrocortisone 2. Aldosterone.
The actions of cortisol (hydrocortisone) include: 1. Helping the body cells use glucose and fat for energy. 2. Helps reduce inflammation. 3. Aids the body with stressful situations.
Aldosterone regulates the balance of electrolytes (lytes).
The electrolytes (salts) include: 1. Sodium (Na). 2. Potassium (K). 3. Chloride (Cl). 4. Calcium (Ca). 5. Phosphorus (P).
Anabolic steroids, the type used by athletes, are synthetic versions of testerone.
Conditions associated with anabolic steroid use includes: 1. Sudden death (MI, CVA). 2. Liver malignancies. 3. Aggressiveness ("roid rage"). 4. Psychosis.
Hypersecretion of cortisol is called Cushing's disease.
Hyposecretion of cortisol is called Addison's disease.
A synthetic cortisol is called cortisone.
The pancreas is located posterior to the stomach (retrogastric).
The function of the pancreas includes the production of the hormones insulin and glucagon.
Insulin is secreted when the blood sugar (BS) rises after eating a meal.
The insulin allows the glucose (BS) to enter the cells.
When the glucose enters the cells the blood sugar (BS) level will fall.
When the blood sugar (BS) falls too low the pancreas will secrete glucagon.
Glucagon will stimulate the liver to convert glycogen to glucose.
This action will cause the glucose (BS) to rise.
A normal blood sugar (BS) is 1. 70-130 mg/dL before meals (a.c.). 2. Less than 180 mg/dL 2 hours after meals (p.c.).
Hyposecretion of insulin and/or the difficult utilization of glucose (insulin resistance) by the cells is called diabetes mellitus (DM).
A synthetic insulin is called Humulin.
Created by: coachpam65