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ST110 A&P Ch. 3

Tissues and Membranes

QuestionAnswer
What are a group of similar cells that perform a common function? tissue
What are the four major types of human tissue? epithelial, connective, muscle, nervous
Epithelium is divided into two types known as what? membranous epithelium and glandular epithelum
What are the functions of the epithelial tissues? protection, cleaning, excretion & secretion, absorption, and diffusion sensation
What is considered a simple squamous epithelium? one-cell layer of flat cells
What is considered a simple cuboidal epithelium? one-cell layer of cells that are as tall as they are wide
What is considered a simple columnar epithelium? single layer of tall, column-shaped cells
What is considered a pseudo stratified columnar epithelium? columnar cells of differing heights
What are hair-like extensions of cells in the respiratory tract and female reproductive system? cilla
Only one duct that leads to the surface is known as? simple exocrine glands
Having two or more ducts is known as? compound exocrine glands
Cells that produce heparin and histamine equals what? mast
What are the general functions of connective tissue? support (holds organ together), bind together tissues, and mechanical framework (skeleton)
What does tensile strength mean? how resistant something is to breaking or bending
What are the three cell types? osteocyte, osteoblast, osteoclast
Mature, inactive bone cell is known as what? osteocyte
Active bone forming cell is known as what? osteoblast
Bone-destroying cell is known as what? osteoclast
Another name for cancellous bone is? spongy bone
An erthrocyte is known as? red blood cell
A leukocyte is known as? white blood cell
Platelets are known as? thrombocytes
What are the cell types of the nervous tissue? neuron, neuroglia, and epineurium
What is the conducting unit of the nervous tissue system? neuron
What is the neuron composed of? axon, dendrites, myelin sheath, and cell body (stoma)
Cell body is also known as? soma
What are the processes of the neurons? axon and dendrite
Axon is what type of process? single
What is an axon? transmits nerve impulse away from the cell body
Dendrite is what type of process? one or more
What is a dendrite? Transmits nerve impulse toward the cell body and axon
Special connecting, supporting, coordinating cells that surround neurons is known as? neuroglia
The connective membrane that surrounds the entire nerve is known as? epineurium
What are the four major types of body membranes? cutaneous, serous, mucous, and synovial
serous membranes in the thoracic cavity are known as what? pleura
Serous membranes in the abdominal cavity are known as what? peritoneum
Epithelial tissues do what to maintain homeostasis? form membranes that contain and protect the internal fluid environment, absorb nutrients, and secrete products that regulate functions involved in homeostasis
Connective tissues do what to maintain homeostasis? hold organs and systems together and form structures that support the body and permit movement
Nervous tissues do what to maintain homeostasis? work with glandular epithelial tissue to regulate body function
muscle tissues do what to maintain homeostasis? work with connective tissues to permit movement
Tissues have a ____ ____ to repair themselves? varying capacity
Damaged tissue ____ or is ____ by scar tissue? regenerates, replaced
Muscles and nervous tissues have ____ ___ to regenerate? limited capacity
Partial or total separation of a layer of tissues after a closure is known as? dehiscence
What can occur when subcutaneous tissues are not approximated with suture? dead space
Should a counted sterile sponge ever be used when dealing with surgical specimens? NEVER
What happens to permanent section? 10 percent formation and may remain on sterile field until end of case
What happens in Fresh or Frozen section? sent immediately after removal and pathologist will phone OR with results
What are the surgical tech responsibilities when surgical specimens? able to identify the specimen, identify the origin, must properly communicate info to circulator, and properly identify and explain markers (suture)
Specimens should be placed on/in what? sterile specimen cup, sterile telfa pad, sterile towel, sterile basin
Multiple layers of flat, squamous epithelium is what? Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
What is a organ? A structure made up of two or more kinds of tissue
What is an organ organizied to preform? Complex function
What is a system? A group of organs arranged to preform a more complex function
How many major organ systems does the human body have? Eleven
What is the primary function of the integumentary system? Protection
What are other functions of the integumentary system? Prevents water loss and invasion of foreign microorganisms into the body, regulates body temp, and houses sensory receptors
What makes up the components of the integumentary system? Skin, hair, nails, sweat glands, sebaceous glands
What is the primary function of the skeletal system? Support and protection
What are other functions of the skeletal system? Attachment points for muscles, produces blood cells, and stores inorganic salts/minerals
What makes up the components of the skeletal system? Bones, joints, ligaments, and cartilage
What is the primary function of the muscular system? Movement and locomotion
What is the primary function of the nervous system? Coordiantes and controls actions of internal organs and systems.
What are other functions of the muscular system? Produce body heat, maintains posture, and provides support
What makes up the components of the muscular system? Muscles and tendons
What are other functions of the nervous system? Memory, learning and conscious thought, maintains autonomic functions such as heartbeat, breathing, and involuntary muscle actions
What makes up the components of the nervous system? Brains, spinal cord, and associated nerves
What is the primary function of the endocrine system Comminutcates with nervous systems to control activity of internal organs
What is another function of the endocrine system? Secretes hormones that regulate metabolism, growth, and reproduction
Whst makes up the components of the endocrine system? Pituitary gland, pineal gland, ovaries, testes, and thyroid gland
What is the primary function of the circulatory system? Transports oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, waste products, immune components, and hormones
What is other functions of the circulatory system? Defends the body by removing microorganisums from tissue fluid and works with lymphatic system
What makes up the components of the circulatory system? Heart, arteries, veins, capillaries, and blood
What is the circulatory system also known as? Cardiovascular system
What is the primary function of the lymphatic system? Part of the circulatory system that transports excess fluids to and from the circulatory system and carries lipids from digestive organs
What is another function of the lymphatic system? Helps defend the body against infection
What makes up the components of the lymphatic system? Lymph nodes, vessels, thymus, and spleen
What is the primary function of the immune (lymphatic) system? Defends the body from microorganisums and viruses as well as cancer and cell growth
What are other functions of the immune (lymphatic) system? Lymphatic and immune system are one in the same and provides cells that aid in protection of the human body from disease through antigen antibody response
What is the primary function of the respiratory system? Moves oxygen from the external to internal
What are other functions of the respiratory system? Removes carbon dioxide and maintains blood pH
Whst makes up the components in the respiratory system? Nasal cavity, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs
What is the primary function of the digestive system? Digest and turns food into nutrients
What are other functions of the digestive system? Chemical and mechanical breakdown breaks food into particles small enough to pass through bloodstreams, eliminates solid waste, recycles water, and retains vitamins from food into large intestine
What makes up the components in the digestive system? Mouth, tongue, teeth, salivary glands, pharynx, esophagues, stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, small intestine, and larger intestine
What is the primary function of the urinary system? Regulates fluid volume and electrolytes
What is another function of the urinary system? Removes organic waste from blood.n
What makes up the components in the urinary system? Kidneys, urinary, bladder, urethira, and ureters
What is primary function of the reproductive system (male)? Produce hormones that aid in sexual development and reproduction
Whst makes up the components of the male reproductive system? Scrotum, testes, penis, epididymids, vas defferentia, seminal vesicles, prostate, bulbourethral glands, and urethra
What is the rim art function of the female reproductive system? Produce hormones that aid in sexual development and reproduction
What makes up the components of the female reproductive system? Ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, vulva, mammoth glands
What is negative feedback? Causes the reverse of the response
What is positive feedback? Increases or accelerates the response
Appendicitis Inflammation of the appendix
Testes Male sexual and reproductive gland aka testicles
Ovaries Part of female reproduction aka Ovary
Hypoplasia Incomplete development or underdevelopment of an organ or tissue
Aplasia Lack of development of an organ or tissue
Dysplasia Abnormal development or an abnormal structure resulting from such growth
Appendectomy Removal of appendix
Angiomegaly Enlargement of blood or lymph vessel
Approximation Close to
Anaplasia When cells divide rapidly and bear little or no resemblance to normal cells in appearance or function
Hyperplasia An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ
Hypertrophy An increase in the bulk of tissue or organ, not due to tumor formation.
Created by: casenichole